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人工智能会取代医院吗?

Is this the future of health? | The Economist

对人工智能的探索
The quest for artificial intelligence
早在80年前就开始了
began more than 80 years ago.
“我可以表演36个不同的动作”
I can perform 36 distinct acts.
人们认为计算机技术
The idea was that computer technology
总有一天会足够强大
would one day be powerful enough to carry out
比人类更好更有效地执行任务
tasks better and more efficiently than humans.
我们已经可以对它说“你好”
We’ve got to actually say hello to it.
今天已经来到人工智能时代
Today AI has come of age.
人工智能正在影响人类生活的许多方面
It’s already having an impact on many parts of human life,
从自动驾驶到寻找灵魂伴侣
from self-driving cars to finding soulmates.
但可能它最有影响力的领域
But perhaps its greatest impact will be on medicine
将是医疗领域和健康状况管理方式
and the way we monitor human health.
Eric Topol医生是数字医学领域
Dr. Eric Topol is one of the most influential doctors
最权威的医生之一
in digital medicine.
他是美国心脏病专家的先驱
The pioneering American cardiologist
他协助开发的药物已经挽救了无数的生命
has helped develop drugs that have saved countless lives.
他处于人工智能在医疗保健领域革命的最前沿
He is now at the forefront of the AI revolution in healthcare.
以下是他对未来人类健康变革的建议
These are his prescriptions for transforming the future of human health.
最重要的任务是重新找回人性
The overarching goal is to bring back the humanity.
如果我们能够做到这点
If we do this right,
就能解决医疗保健问题
we can rescue the problems of healthcare.
人工智能将如何改变未来的医疗保健
医患关系是医疗保健和医学的根本
The doctor-patient relationship is a founding principle of healthcare and medicine.
首要工作就是拿掉键盘和电脑屏幕 回归到临床
The first step is to eliminate keyboards and computer screens and clinical encounters.
1.用人工智能代替医生的临床书面工作
在西方 有些医生在医疗文书上花费的时间
Some doctors in the West can spend up to
是他们花费在患者身上的两倍
twice as many hours on medical paperwork than with their patients.
随着时代的发展 我们应该能够避免
In the years ahead, we should be able to eliminate
将临床医生视为数据员
the data clerk functions of clinicians.
不仅患者讨厌这样的工作
These are mutually hated as much by patients
医生和临床医师也不喜欢
as by doctors and clinicians.
如今 在家里看到人工智能工具
AI tools such as speech recognition technology
比如 语音识别技术 早已不足为奇了
that are now commonplace in homes
临床环境中也可以用它来获取数据和信息
could be used in clinical settings for capturing data and notes,
让医生将注意力放在病人身上
allowing doctors to concentrate on people.
2.使用机器来减少错误
我们在准确性和效率方面还存在问题
We have a problem with accuracy and efficiency.
在大量医疗数据的训练下
Trained on a huge resource of medical data,
与人类相比 人工智能强大的学习能力
the power of AI learning can read some images
能够更加准确地辨识影像
more accurately than humans.
无论是扫描影像 还是幻灯片 或是进行预测
Whether it’s a pattern like a scan or a slide,
人工智都能提高准确率
or a prediction, AI can really rev up the accuracy.
这点非常重要 它可以带来更加准确的诊断
And that is important for a better diagnosis,
更好的治疗 更好的结果和更低的费用
better treatments, better outcomes, lower cost.
用强大的机器来解读影像
Powerful machines can interpret scans
要比医院放射科的医生快150倍
150 times faster than radiologists,
还可以24小时无间断工作
and can work 24 hours a day.
人工智能甚至可以提供诊断
AI can even suggest a diagnosis.
许多病情可以由人工智能诊断
Many conditions could be AI-diagnosed.
这样就能为医生节省时间
And so the time that a doctor comes into play
去针对性地解决疑难杂症
is very specific to important diagnoses.
3.获取数据来改善结果
数据是至关重要的
Data is critical for improving
它能增进我们对疾病的理解
our understanding of disease and illness.
我们了解的越多
The more we understand, the better the chances
预防 诊断和治愈的机率就越大
of preventing, diagnosing, and curing.
但是现在 只有5%左右的医疗数据得到了有效利用
Data is critical for improving
我们的问题在于产生的数据太多
We had a problem of generating so much data,
每位患者都会产生万亿字节的数据量
terabytes of data for each person,
但我们却没有好好分析数据的方法
but we didn’t have a way to analyze it.
就像找不到提纯果汁的方法一样
We didn’t have a way to extract the juice,
过去我们无法提取关键信息
the distillate of this.
但现在有办法了
Now we do,
就是让人工智能来做这些事情
and that’s what artificial intelligence is really about.
人工智能可以利用无线设备
Harnessed to wireless devices,
监管人们各方面的健康数据
AI could oversee every facet of people’s health data,
从家族病史到摄取何种食物 再到锻炼行为
from family history to food intake to exercise.
人们将有机会获得属于自己的
People will have the opportunity to have this real,
真实的综合报告
integrated view of themselves
这个报告能帮助他们预防疾病
to help prevent illness, to help guide them
指导他们获得更好的健康状况管理
for better management of conditions.
随着时间的进展
Over time,
我们将看到能提高健康水平的“虚拟教练”
we’ll see this virtual coach for promoting health.
人工智能的持续性监护
Constant AI monitoring could transform the most prolific diseases
能够改变需要看护的多发疾病 例如糖尿病
that demand the most care, such as diabetes.
它让人们能够管理自己的健康情况
This would empower people to take charge of their own health.
4.不在医院 而是在家给病人治病
随着时代发展 人工智能可以实现另一个作用
Another way that AI will kick in over time
让诊疗摆脱医院病房
is to get rid of hospital rooms
我们可以在病人自己家里监测他们的情况
We can monitor patients in the comfort of their own home, because they can have the sensors
因为他们会有和加护病房一样的生命监护设备
that would provide the same type of monitoring as if someone was in the intensive care unit.
在医疗机构外照顾病人
Caring for people outside of medical settings
不仅可以预防被医院里的疾病感染
would not only prevent hospital-acquired disease,
还可以省钱
it could also save money.
把关注重点从病房转移到病人的卧室
All these things favor this shift of reliance on a patient’s bedroom,
这些设想都能够实现
rather than the hospital room.
我们设想的这种情景下
We’re talking about a whole lot of people that don’t
医院将不再需要那么多员工
need to be employed in the hospital setting;
对于减少未来的负担 这的确是个好办法
that is a great way to reduce the burden in the future.
在美国 每间病房每晚要5000美元
In the United States a hospital costs $5,000 a night,
省下的这笔钱足够用来做很多年的数据研究了
so you could get a lot of data plans that would go for years for that cost.
如果你只想记住一件事……
如果临床团队全力支持病人
If the clinical community stands up for patients
人工智能也能同时贡献一切力量 提升效率和产值
and say all the power, efficiency, productivity,
省下来的时间就可以造福医生 护士和病患
workflow from AI is going to be used to give the gift of time to doctors and nurses and patients,
这样就可以彻底颠覆目前的医疗现状 解决问题
that’s where we flip this thing and achieve a rescue mission for healthcare.

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视频概述

看完本视频,你可以了解到人工智能在医疗的作用及未来的发展方向。

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翻译译者

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视频来源

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=jZg5QhL3Ckc

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