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比可卡因更易成瘾的是什么? – 译学馆
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比可卡因更易成瘾的是什么?

Is This Everyday Substance More Addictive Than Cocaine?

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Hey there! Welcome to Life Noggin.
哦?原来这些都是糖果?
Oh? Everything is candy!
好棒!
Sweet!
我不知道你是不是 但我可喜欢糖了
I don’t know about you, but I really love sugar.
只要是甜的我都喜欢
Anything sweet really.
还有善良的……
And kind…
聪明的……
And smart…
刁蛮的……
And super tough…
哦天啊 我的老毛病又犯了
and oh Jez, ok. I’m doing it again.
好了 回到主题 布洛克
Uh, back on topic, Blocko.
对了 糖实在太棒了!
So yeah, sugar is pretty awesome!
有些人甚至会说他们“嗜糖成瘾”
Some people even say that they’re “addicted to the stuff”.
但是真的有可能像对毒品一样
But is it actually possible to get “addicted” to sugar
对糖“上瘾”吗?
like you can with certain drugs?
如果我们要比较二者 就得先弄清
Well, first off, if we’re going to try and compare the two,
“药物成瘾”到底是什么
just what is a drug addiction?
根据国家药物滥用研究所给出的定义
According to the National Institute on Drug Abuse,
成瘾是一种慢性的脑部疾病
addiction is a chronic brain disease
特征是一个人会强迫性的获取和摄入毒品
characterized by a person’s compulsion to seek out and use drugs,
无视这种行为的害处
despite there being harmful consequences.
毒品会影响大脑的运作和结构
Drugs can alter your brain, both in how it works and its actual structure,
这些变化长期存在
and those changes can be long-lasting,
从而导致有害的行为
leading to harmful behaviors.
甚至是损伤自身的行为
Sometimes even self-destructive ones.
那么糖有没有同样的损伤机制呢?
So can the same type of thing happen with sugar?
人们很难就是否会成瘾达成一致
People can’t really seem to agree one way or the other.
有些人相信
Now, there are certainly supporters
糖类成瘾确实存在
that back the idea of sugar addiction.
去年发表在《英国运动医学杂志》上的一篇文章
A good example is an article put out just last year
就是一个很好的例子
in the British Journal of Sports Medicine.
在研究了大量来自动物和人类的数据后
After looking at a bunch of data, both with animals and humans,
研究人员发现 从行为和脑神经化学的角度来看
researchers said that there are substantial parallels between sugar and drugs of abuse,
糖类和药物成瘾有许多相似之处
from both a behavioral standpoint and one of brain neurochemistry.
他们还指出 数项动物研究表明
They even brought up how certain animal studies have shown that
糖提供的奖励感比可卡因还要强烈
the reward for sugar can surpass that of cocaine.
这就是糖类成瘾存在的有力证据
So it’s a pretty good case for sugar addiction being real.
但在不久前的2016年 一项研究提出了相反结论
But a recent 2016 study argues the opposite.
研究者从检索糖类和食物成瘾的文献入手
The researchers started off by looking at the literature on sugar and food addictions.
随后对动物和人类神经科学文献中
Then they examined if sugar could be addictive
药物和糖类成瘾的相关证据进行对比
by pitting any evidence from the animal and human neuroscience
以探讨糖类是否会导致成瘾
literature on drug and sugar addiction against each other.
最后发现 人类对糖类成瘾的相关证据不足
In the end, they found little evidence to support that humans could be addicted to sugar.
他们还表示 动物实验结果表明
They also said that findings from animal cases suggest that
只有在间歇性供应糖的情况下 它们才会上瘾
their addiction-like behaviors happened only when they had intermittent access to sugar,
他们相信 成瘾的主因是糖的间歇性供应
believing those behaviors to come from the intermittent access,
不是糖的神经化学作用
not the actual neurochemical effects of sugar.
但是另一方面
Though on another note
有证据表明人类对糖的渴求与成瘾相似
one thing that potentially points to sugar cravings as being similar to addiction
那就是 一种用来戒烟的药物
is that drugs designed to help people quit smoking
也可以帮助抑制爱吃甜食的毛病
might also help you curb a bit of your sweet tooth.
一项以老鼠为实验对象的研究表明
Looking at a study using rats, research suggests that
经FDA批准的尼古丁戒断药物——伐尼克兰
varenicline, an FDA-approved drug used to help people with nicotine cravings,
同样可以减少人们对甜食的渴望
could also be used to reduce your desire to eat sugary foods.
在这项研究中
In the study,
研究人员让老鼠选择仅喝水
rats were given the choice to either drink from a bottle containing only water,
或者喝蔗糖增甜的水
or one that had been sweetened with sucrose.
结果发现 毛绒绒的老鼠服下伐尼克兰后
While our little furry friends used varenicline,
对蔗糖的摄取就显著减少了
researchers found that the rats consumed significantly less sucrose.
这个发现太有意思了!
The findings are pretty interesting!
但这就意味着 人是否真的对糖上瘾
But this all means that we don’t really have a clear answer on
没有一个明确的答案
whether or not you can actually be addicted to sugar.
但无论如何 糖对你的生活会有影响
But either way, sugar can have an effect on your life
所以人们才会想减少糖的摄入
and sometimes people want to cut it out.
特别是“添加糖”
Specifically “added sugars”,
也就是食物和饮料在制作或加工时
which are sugars and syrups that are added to what you eat or drink
添加进去的糖或糖浆
when it’s prepared or processed.
所以说 别买糖果和碳酸饮料就行了 对吧?
So that just means getting rid of things like candies and soda, right?
当然不是
Well, apparently not.
很多“更健康”的食物里也有添加糖
Added sugar is in a bunch of “healthier” options too.
所有食物都含有适量的添加糖
You can find decent amounts of added sugar in everything,
比如谷物棒 酸奶 罐装水果 甚至意大利面酱
from granola bars and yogurt to canned fruits and even spaghetti sauce.
哇哦 你的世界有太多的含糖的食物了
Wow, there’s so many sugary things in your world.
如果你想在“品生活”世界里买到任何甜食
If you want to get any sweet foods down here in the Life Noggin world,
你得去访问其中一个记住你某些数据的网站
you have to visit one of those websites that remembers some of your data.
呃 我当然会启用“曲奇饼”!
Uhh. Of course I’ll enable cookies!
把它们拿来
Bring em here!
给我!
Give me!
曲奇饼给我!
Give me the cookies!
给我!
Give me!
那么 你觉得自己有糖瘾吗?
So do you think you’re addicted to sugar?
你最爱吃的甜食是什么?
What’s your favorite sugary treat to eat?
写在评论区里让我知道吧
Let me know in the comment section below.
想认识一个会让你变石头的罕见疾病吗?
Wanna learn more about a rare syndrome that essentially turns you to stone?
看看这个视频吧!
Check out this video!
想象一下 有一天你发现肋骨上有个巨大的肿块
Imagine one day you find a huge lump on your rib cage,
可是就算做了X光检查
and even after getting it x-rayed,
你也还是不知道是怎么回事
you still don’t know what’s going on.
再说一次 我是布洛克
As always, my name is Blocko,
这个视频是《品生活》系列
this has been Life Noggin,
记得要“一直思考”噢!
don’t forget to Keep On Thinking!

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视频概述

可卡因以其强烈的成瘾性而臭名昭著,但你知道还有一样东西比它的成瘾性更强吗?你知道其实每天你都在摄入它吗?你知道它对大脑有什么损害吗?来看看视频怎么说吧!

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视频来源

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=3eorvRkMBMM

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