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太空还有给更多卫星的空间吗?

Is There Space for 12,000 More Satellites Up There?

最近 SpaceX宣布 为向全人类提供更优质的网络服务
Recently, SpaceX announced its plan to provide better Internet to people around the world
计划在2019至2024年间发射4425颗宽带卫星
with a constellation of 4,425 broadband satellites between 2019 and 2024.
这些卫星将在83个比大多数通讯卫星更靠近地球的轨道上运行。
They’ll orbit in 83 different planes closer to Earth than most existing communications satellites
但SpaceX公司并不打算就此而已。
And SpaceX isn’t stopping there.
长远来看,SpaceX公司还希望在更低的轨道上发射7500颗卫星,
Looking ahead, the company hopes to add another 7,500 satellites in even lower orbits for
用于改善人口密集区的网络信号。
faster signals in heavily populated areas.
这听起来棒极了。
That all sounds great.
但问题是我们怎么能把12000颗卫星都送上轨道呢?
But how can we just put almost 12,000 more satellites into orbit?
看似浩瀚的太空 实则已经充斥了大量物体
Space seems infinite, but there’s a lot of stuff already up there.
解决问题的关键就是将他们送入不同的轨道。
The key to adding new satellites is that they don’t all go in the same place…
一些卫星在距离地球22000英里(大约35398千米)的高轨道上运行。
Some satellites are in a High Earth Orbit, about 22,000 miles above the planet.
对于地球同步卫星来说,这是一个恰到好处的轨道;
This is a sweet spot for geosynchronous satellites; they orbit the Earth once per day so seem
它们一天环绕地球一圈就好像一直盘旋在同一区域,这对于天气观测卫星和通讯卫星是个好位置。
to hover above one point on Earth, a great location for weather monitoring and communications satellites.
更靠近的是距离地球表面12500英里(约20112.5千米)的中轨道卫星
Closer to home are Medium Earth Orbit satellites, some 12,500 miles above the Earth’s surface.
这里的轨道是稳定且可靠的,使其成为GPS卫星的理想区域。
Orbits here are consistent and dependable making this an ideal region for GPS satellites.
并且最近我们在距离地球100到1200英里的低轨道
And lastly we have satellites in Low Earth Orbit, the area between 100 and 1,200 miles
也有卫星。
above the planet.
这些卫星处在可以根据任务需要而改变的环形轨道上,
These satellites are in circular orbits that vary depending on the mission needs, and this
与国际空间站和哈勃太空望远镜是同一运行轨道
is also where the International Space Station and Hubble Space Telescope orbit.
这是最容易进入的区域,所以成为了最受欢迎的一个。
It’s the easiest region to get to, so a pretty popular one.
一般的,那儿有大约1200颗在轨运行卫星。
Currently, there are about 1,200 operational satellites in orbit.
SpaceX竟想增加发射十倍多的卫星
and SpaceX wants to add more than ten times that much!
但SpaceX公司并不想把他们搞得一团糟。
But it’s not like SpaceX will throw them up pell mell.
卫星被送入不干扰其他卫星的轨道上。
Satellites are launched into orbits deigned not to interfere with other satellites.
并且在同一轨道上的卫星有着相同的环绕速率,
And satellites in the same orbit all have the same orbital velocity
这就意味着它们以相同的速度环绕就不会相撞。
meaning they orbit at the same speed and aren’t likely to hit each other.
这就像一群人在开卡丁车绕圈。
It’s like a team of people driving laps in go karts.
贸然加入并改变速度是行不通的 必须找准空隙 匹配在轨卫星的速度
You can’t just join in and change speeds, you have to find a gap and match their pace.
但卫星并不是那里的唯一物体。
But satellites aren’t the only thing up there.
那里还有许多太空垃圾,从退役卫星到耗尽的火箭和废弃的整流罩。
There’s a lot of junk from dead satellites to spent rocket stages and discarded fairings.
并且每次发射都会制造太空垃圾。
And every launch creates space junk.
自从1957太空时代到来,我们已经发射了超过5000次,也因此制造了
We’ve seen over 5,000 launches since the space age began in 1957, and that’s created
20000多块比垒球大的太空垃圾
over 20,000 piece of space junk bigger than a softball!
大部分的(太空垃圾)我们能追踪,但有一些小的,散落的我们不能密切注意
We can track a lot of that, but there are little bits and pieces that we can’t keep
比如来自固体火箭发动器的小残骸,或者是来自老的俄罗斯核能人造卫星的冷却剂
tabs on… dust from solid rocket motors, coolant from old Russian nuclear-powered satellite,
甚至是一粒沙子的小斑点
even flecks of paint as small as a grain of sand.
这些碎片能造成重击 一块油漆击打卫星的力度
And those tiny things can pack a punch, that one fleck of paint can hit a satellite with
相当于550磅物体以60英里每小时撞击产生的力度
as much force as a 550 pound object traveling at 60 miles per hour!
并非所有卫星都能避开残骸 但有一些 比如ISS
Not all satellites can avoid this debris, but some, like the ISS, have to dodge that junk.
所以尽管Space设想的卫星群能提高我们的宽带质量
So SpaceX’s proposed new constellation of satellites will give us better broadband,
但同时也会阻塞近地轨道
but it’s also going to clog up LEO that much more,
不但令安全运送卫星入轨更加困难
make it that much harder not only to send satellites into safe orbits,
也为穿越星际残骸去往其他星球的载人任务
but also it’s going to get that much more hazardous
带来了更大的危害
for manned mechines to fly through that growing debris field to get to other planets.
你能想象处于太空中 看见舱外残骸乱飞的场景吗
Can you imagine being up in space and seeing random debris float by outside?!
你可以体验一下 说起来 大家知道我们有个叫VR探寻者的姊妹频道吗?
That’d be an experience, and speaking of, did you know we have a sister channel called Seeker VR?
那里有一切你想探寻的东西 不过是360体验的
It’s everything you love about Seeker, but in 360 degrees!
SeekerVR会带你体验
SeekerVR will take you on some incredible journeys
绝无仅有的奇妙旅程
that you probably wouldn’t get to experience otherwise.
比如最近一起节目中 我们坐上了世界上最致命的火车之一
Like in a recent episode, we took a ride on one of the most deadly trains in the world.
你可以点击这里观看
Check it out here.
说到太空垃圾 年代最久的退役卫星是先锋一号 发射于1958年
And speaking of space junk, the oldest dead satellite up there is Vanguard 1, launched in 1958.
如果你对那个年代有兴趣 可以点击我们频道下的这个视频
If you’re curious about that era, check out this video from my own channel,
《过去的太空》
Vintage Space.
你对这些太空垃圾有什么看法呢
What do you guys think about all this space junk?
请在评论区留言 记得点赞和订阅哦
Let us know in the comments, be sure to give this video a like and subscribe
这样你就不会错过我们所有精彩的节目了
so you never miss an episode of Seeker.

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视频概述

SpaceX计划往近地轨道发射12000多颗卫星,可那里还有空间吗?

听录译者

收集自网络

翻译译者

Alenquer

审核员

审核团MG

视频来源

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=BMoH_zr2y8A

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