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世界是否回归黑暗时代?| Salman Rushdie – 译学馆
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世界是否回归黑暗时代?| Salman Rushdie

Is the World Returning to the Dark Ages? | Salman Rushdie

一周前我看到一则非常令人担忧的新闻报道
Well, I saw a really alarming newspaper article just a week or so ago
文章中说一些调查表明
in which it was—some survey had shown
自我界定为共和党人的人中
that more than 50 percent of self-identifying Republicans believed
超50%认为大学对美国不利
that universities were bad for America,
认为大学实际上是美国人生活中
believed that universities were actually
一种消极有害的力量
a negative harmful force in American life.
我之前从未听别人这样说过
That was, I mean I’d never, I’d never seen any group of people saying that before, you know,
所以我很震惊
so that was shocking.
我觉得这种现象并不是美国独有的
And I do think this is not unique to America, because also in England
因为在英国 也有类似的对于专家的不信任
there is a similar kind of distrust of expertise.
英国脱欧投票中 一再出现
You know, and, and, you know, in the Brexit vote there—one of the things that came up over and over again
民众对专家“指手画脚他人想法”的不满声音
was a dislike of experts “telling you what to think”.
不知为何 这种对“专业人士”的不信任开始在全球蔓延
And so somehow this mistrust of “people who know things” has become internationalized.
这不仅仅是美国民众的人权问题
It’s not just something about the American Right.
显然 对于那些视知识为伟大美德的人
And, it’s obviously to somebody who has seen knowledge as being a great virtue,
那些一生都在努力一点点积累知识的人
and who has spent his life trying to accumulate little bits of it,
以及那些认为知识就是一种美的人来说
and somebody who thinks of knowledge as a kind of beauty,
看到人们对它持怀疑态度 实在很难过
it’s very discomforting to say the least to have people who think of it as being suspicious.
你知道
You know, um…
因为在我看来所发生的事是对精英思想的一种奇怪的曲解
Because what’s happening it seems to me is a strange distortion of the idea of the elite.
如果你问我 什么是精英分子
If you ask me “What’s an elite?”
我会更多地想到坐在特朗普政府里的亿万富翁
I would think more about the many, many billionaires sitting in the Trump administration.
这是一个比往届都拥有更多超级富豪的政府
Here’s a government with more super-rich people in it than has ever been in any American government,
而这样的政府称呼大学教授和记者为精英
and that government calls college professors and journalists elites.
那些拥有私人飞机和高尔夫球场的人可不是我们——相对而言 很少有小说家拥有这些东西
We’re not the ones with private planes and golf courses in the Bahamas—relatively few novelists have these things.
我们是精英 而那个群体
And the idea that we’re the elites, whereas that group,
那些百里挑一 万里挑一的人 却将自己某种程度上视作普罗大众
that kind of 0.1 of the 1 percent that considers itself to be in some way possessing the common touch,
这一观点看起来就像是对现实的一种荒谬滑稽的颠倒
that just seems like an absurd comic inversion of reality.
我想我们当前看到的 也是我试图在小说中捕捉的一个观点是
I think one of the things we see at the moment, and I tried to in a way capture in the novel,
世界颠倒了
is this idea of a world turned upside down,
在这个世界中 关于现实的那些平庸 务实 可靠的描述每天都在人们的脑海中徘徊
in which things that one thought of as being normal—solid, believable descriptions of reality—are being stood on their head everyday.
现实本身的概念 那些可被证实的客观真理
The idea of reality itself, the idea of truth is something verifiable and objective,
所有的这些东西都被倒置了 被连根拔起了
all these things are being inverted and knocked off their pedestals.
我是说 有一件很可怕的事情 作家们有时会对彼此说
Well, I mean there is a terrible thing which writers sometimes say to each other,
“国家不幸诗家幸”
which is, “The worse it is the better it is,”
因为当世界处于一种可怕的状态时 有很多东西要写
because when the world is in a terrible condition there’s a lot to write about.
一个例子是 当面对庞然巨物般的独裁权威时
I mean one demonstration of this is the literature, very often underground literature—the Samizdat
苏联的文学 尤其是地下文学
literature of the Soviet Union was of an extraordinary quality when there was this colossal adversary
其质量是非凡的
of Soviet authoritarianism.
许多作家 无论是在小说还是非虚构作品中 都被这一危机激发了 并创造了非凡的
Many writers, both in a fiction and nonfiction, rose to that challenge and created extraordinary
作品
work.
我认为说
And I think it’s not unfair to say that the literature of the post Soviet Union, the
自1989年以来的俄国文学水平下降是不公平的
literature of Russia since 1989, that there is a somewhat of a falling off, that it’s
它并不像之前的作品那样紧张和不寻常
not quite as intense and extraordinary as that earlier work because of the lack of the
因为失去了逆境
adversity.
换句话说在我看来 苏联解体破坏了间谍小说的土壤
To put it in another way it seems to me that spy fiction was enormously damaged by the
因为突然间 谁是敌人
loss of the Soviet Union because suddenly, who were the enemy?
所以我确实认为 在这种情况下 这是一种非常对立的问题 在这个问题上
So I do think that in times this, which are very adversarial and in which the question
真相的问题已经变得如此重要 艺术有一个很大的地方
of the truth has become so central, there’s a big place for art, there’s a really big
艺术在这段时间里有一个很大的作用
role for art to speak up in such a time.
我认为 在美国 我认识的多多少少每一个作家
And I think more or less every writer I know in America is considering how best to respond
都在考虑如何最好地回应我们发现自己的地方 包括我自己
to the place we find ourselves, including me.
这本书的大部分内容都是在11月8日之前写的 我的意思是大部分的书
Most of this book was written before November the 8th, I mean the vast bulk of it was finished
都是在选举前完成的
before the election.
我很遗憾地说 我猜对了 也就是说 我一直都知道 如果
And I’m sorry to say that I guessed right, that’s to say that I always knew that if
事情以另一种方式发生 那一定要对这本书的一部分
things had gone another way that there would’ve had to be some reshaping of a part of the
进行重塑
book.
(但实际上 我需要做一点重塑 因为事情并不总是
(But actually anyway I needed to do a bit of reshaping because things don’t always
如你所预料的那样)
turn out exactly as you foresee.)
但是我想尝试和捕捉这种奇怪的时刻 说实话这部分小说
But I wanted to try and capture this strange moment and to tell the truth that part of
背景而不是前景 所以实际的这本书的故事情节
the novel is very much background rather than foreground, so the actual storyline of the
人物发生了什么以及他们如何解决他们的特定的困境
book, what happens to the characters and how they resolve their particular dilemmas, that
也不会以任何方式改变如果用另一种方式选举
would not have been altered in any way if the election had gone in another way.
我的意思是 故事是这样的 但是故事的背景
I mean the story is the story, but the context of the story, the way in which America developed
美国从奥巴马政府的开端发展到现在 在那段时间里发生了什么
from the beginning of the Obama administration to the present moment, what happened in that
这就是这正文与这个故事的发生相反的地方
arc of time, that’s the context against which the story takes place.
我不得不猜测和赌博几分然后试着解决问题直到
And there I had to guess and gamble a little bit and then try and fix things right up till
这本书出版的那一刻 因此或多或少有一些
the moment the book went to the presses, so that’s more or less—there’s a moment
他们使你的手指离开键盘说“今天我们印刷书
when they take your fingers off the keyboard and say “we’re printing the book today,
所以你不能做了!”
so you can’t do anymore!”
但在那之前 我一直在努力解决问题
But until that moment I was trying to fix things.

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美国选举带给世界的影响

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收集自网络

翻译译者

Finn

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视频来源

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=9qAgmpX6c4U

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