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宇宙是一幅全息图吗?黑洞的奇怪物理 – 译学馆
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宇宙是一幅全息图吗?黑洞的奇怪物理

Is the universe a hologram? The strange physics of black holes | #5 of Top 10 2019 | Big Think

咨询一位天文学家
嗨 Michelle 为什么有些物理学家认为宇宙是一张全息图? ——Benjamin
Black holes really are kind of getting to the very heart of our physics.
黑洞确实有些触及到了物理学的核心
And I believe that they’re kind of showing us the way
我觉得黑洞的存在向我们指出
that eventually we’re going to need different physics and new physics.
我们总有一天会需要一种不同的全新的物理学
People ask questions like, “What happens inside a black hole?”
人们问道 “黑洞内部会发生什么?”
Or even, “What happens at the very boundary of a black hole,
甚至是 “黑洞的边界 即事件视界
the event horizon, when light is absorbed?”
在光被吸收时会发生什么?”
And honestly, our physics is telling us a lot of contradictory things.
老实说 我们的物理学上存在很多互相矛盾的事物
And our image of what an event horizon really is may be changing.
我们对事件视界本质的认识可能正在改变
People like Stephen Hawking and Leonard Susskind have recently come up with this idea that
史蒂芬·霍金和伦纳德·苏斯金德等人最近提出
a black hole should not be able to destroy information.
黑洞应该不具备破坏信息的能力
O.K., what do we mean by information?
我们所说的信息是什么呢?
Information can be almost anything.
信息几乎可以是任何东西
You know, all of the different atoms in my body have angular momentum,
人体内所有不同的原子都有角动量
they have charge, they have mass.
电荷和质量
There’s all sorts of little bits of information that make me me.
所有的这些信息使我成为我自己
At the quantum mechanic level, the tiniest of levels,
在量子力学水平 最微小的水平上
there are different amounts of energy,
存在不同量级的能量
there are different probabilities
在人的物质结构中
that are contained in the structure of my matter.
包含着不同的可能性
And information, in some ways is a form of energy.
信息在某种角度上是一种能量
It’s actually a way that you can describe something which is somehow,
它实际上是一种描述事物的方式
in a strange way, a higher energy state that not being able to describe something.
以一种奇怪的方式描述了一种无法描述事物的高能量状态
And so one of the questions is, “If energy really can’t be destroyed,
因而产生了一个问题 “如果能量无法被破坏
energy itself is something that is intrinsic in the universe,
因为能量本身就是宇宙中固有的东西
you can’t really created or destroy it.
你无法创造或破坏它
Is it possible that information is the same way?
那么信息是否也可能是这样呢?
Is there really no way to actually destroy the information about
真的无法破坏有关人体内亚原子粒子
what all of my subatomic particles are doing right now?”
此刻状态的信息吗?”
So black holes kind of stare you right in the face.
黑洞就像这样摆在你面前
What a black hole supposedly does is it absorbs everything.
据推测 黑洞所做的就是吸收一切事物
Space and time bend into a black hole so that nothing can escape.
时空弯曲成一个黑洞 任何东西都无法逃脱
That means that any information about the material that fell in is gone.
这意味着任何进入其中的信息都消失了
The only thing we know about is that as a black hole absorbs material,
我们唯一知道的是 当黑洞吸收物质时
it gets more massive.
它会变得更庞大
It actually adds that mass to the mass of the black hole.
该质量会增加黑洞的质量
And as that mass increases, the event horizon becomes larger.
随着质量的增加 事件视界也会变大
Basically, the area where space is so curved that you can’t get out
基本上 黑洞的质量越大
begins to extend, the more massive a black hole is.
空间弯曲而难以逃脱的区域越广
The most massive black holes we know of in the universe
我们已知宇宙中质量最大的黑洞
are many billions of times the mass of our sun.
是太阳质量的数十亿倍
And the physical extent of this event horizon is about the size of
这个黑洞的事件视界的物理范围约有
our solar system, maybe like out to the planet Pluto.
太阳系那么大 可能会延伸到冥王星那么远
So is it possible, then,
那么有可能吗
if everything goes into a black hole and nothing ever comes out,
一切都陷入了黑洞却从没有任何东西能从中逃脱
space and time go inside the black hole and don’t come out?
那时空进入黑洞也出不来吗?
What happened to that information?
它的信息发生了什么呢?
And this has begun to make a lot of people wonder
这让很多人开始怀疑
if we really have thought of black holes the wrong way.
我们理解黑洞的方式是否出了错
Maybe there isn’t an event horizon in the true sense.
也许真正意义上的事件视界并不存在
I actually had a friend of mine that studies black holes say,
我有一个在研究黑洞的朋友说
“Well, I’m not sure if they’re black.
“我不确定黑洞是否是黑色的
They may be very, very dark navy blue.”
它们也许是非常非常深的海军蓝呢”
And what he meant by that is, maybe there are some tricks
他的意思是 也许有一些技巧可以
to actually get information out of a black hole.
从黑洞中获取信息
Maybe there really is some form of energy
也许确实存在某种形式的能量
that can leak away from the black hole over time.
会随时间流逝从黑洞中逃逸出来
Now, Stephen Hawking wondered
史蒂芬·霍金怀疑
if quantum effects very near the event horizon
事件视界附近的量子效应
could actually separate something called virtual particles,
也许可以分离出被称为虚拟粒子的东西
the energy of space itself.
即空间本身的能量
If you’re familiar with Einstein’s equation, E equals MC squared,
如果你熟悉爱因斯坦方程式 △ E=(△m)c²
energy equals mass times the speed of light squared.
即能量等于质量乘以光速的平方
Energy and mass are the same thing.
就知道能量和质量是一回事
They’re equivalent.
它们是对等的
You can actually make mass into energy,
你可以将质量转化为能量
and you can make energy into mass.
也可以将能量转化为质量
Around a black hole, where there’s very hot gas, very high temperatures,
在黑洞周围 有高热气体 极度高温
very strong magnetic fields, perhaps, there’s a lot of energy.
超强磁场 也许还有庞大的能量
And that energy can actually manifest itself as particles, mass.
而该能量可以表现为粒子和质量
And the energy always creates particle/antiparticle pairs.
该能量会一直产生粒子-反粒子对
They’re called virtual particles.
这被称为虚拟粒子
And matter and antimatter, the thing you know about is
而关于物质和反物质 我们所了解的是
that it annihilates immediately.
它会立即消失
So these tiny little particles come into existence,
这些微小的粒子出现
then annihilate, and you’re back to energy.
然后消失 从而产生能量
And this happens all around us all the time.
而这每一刻都在我们身边发生着
So, if this happens near a black hole,
因此 如果这发生在一个黑洞附近
it’s possible one of these little particles can go into the black hole
则其中一个小颗粒可能会进入黑洞
and the other one escapes.
而另一个会逃逸
And all of a sudden, there’s a particle that shouldn’t be there.
一个不应该在那儿的粒子突然出现了
The universe basically has a new particle, energy from nowhere.
宇宙中突然出现了一个能量来源不明的全新粒子
And how can that work?
这怎么可能呢?
And the information theory people say that what happens
对此 信息论人士认为
is that energy has to come out of the black hole.
能量一定来自于黑洞
The black hole’s mass begins to decrease if there is this poor little orphan particle
如果出现了这样从一开始就不应该存在的小粒子
that shouldn’t have been there in the first place.
那么 黑洞的质量会开始减少
So over time, tiny particle by tiny particle,
因此 随着时间流逝 随着一个又一个微小粒子的出现
these black holes can evaporate away.
这些黑洞会蒸发掉
And maybe there’s something about those virtual particles that contain
也许那些虚拟粒子中包含一些
some information about the black hole and what fell into it.
有关黑洞及陷入其中的物质的信息
It even gets stranger than that,
比这更奇怪的是
because a lot of people think that time goes slower and slower
很多人认为 越接近黑洞
as you approach a black hole,
时间流逝就越慢
till, at the event horizon, time basically stops.
到事件视界时 时间基本上停滞了
So instead of anything really ever falling into a black hole,
因此 事件视界其实可能是一种信息外壳
what the event horizon may be is some sort of shell of information.
而不是由真正陷入黑洞的事物构成
Things are stopped in time as they fell into the black hole.
事物在落入黑洞时处于时间上的相对静态
And right at that boundary, there is almost kind of a sphere,
在该边界处 有一个近似的球体
a two-dimensional surface
一个二维表面
that somehow contains all the information about what’s inside the black hole.
它以某种方式包含着有关黑洞内部的所有信息
And this reminded people of something that
这使人们想到了
the humans invented, called a hologram.
人类发明的一种东西 全息图
Now, a hologram is a two-dimensional object.
全息图是一个二维物体
You can make it out of glass or a piece of film.
可以用玻璃或薄膜制成
And you shine a light through it,
当一束光穿过它时
and all of a sudden, there seem to be three-dimensional projections.
会突然一下产生一个三维投影
And the idea is that
这个想法意味着
are we looking at some fundamental way the universe stores information.
我们是在研究宇宙存储信息的一些基本方式吗?
Around a black hole, where space and time have been crushed out of existence,
在时空已经被粉碎而不复存在的黑洞周围
could there be a shell of information, something like a hologram?
会不会有一个类似于全息图的信息外壳存在呢?
And a lot of people began to wonder,
许多人开始认为
maybe that’s the way the universe works on a larger scale.
也许这就是宇宙在更大尺度上的运作方式
Maybe black holes are showing us, intrinsically,
也许黑洞从本质上向我们揭示了
what the underlying nature of reality is,
现实深藏的本质是什么
that there really is a two-dimensional surface of something
现实中存在着某种二维表面
that contains all information about the entire universe.
其中包含着整个宇宙的所有信息
Maybe in some way, we are part of this giant hologram.
也许在某种程度上 我们是这个巨大全息图的一部分
And I should mention that the word, hologram,
需要注意的是 全息图这个词
in no way implies that somebody made the hologram.
并不意味着它是被谁制造出来的
We’re just talking about the universe may really be
我们只是在谈论 宇宙其实可能是
information contained in a two-dimensional structure,
包含在一个二维结构中的信息
not the three dimensions that we’re aware of now.
而不是包含在我们如今所知的三维结构中
This all sounds incredibly strange.
这听起来实在异常奇怪
I’m always a little bit afraid to even talk about it.
我甚至总有点害怕谈论它
But I think that the thing to really kind of gain from this
但我认为 我们从中真正收获的是
is that black holes are staring us right in the face.
我们知道黑洞就摆在我们面前
We’re now observing them.
我们现在正在观察它们
They’re right there.
它们就在那儿
And we cannot really describe
我们无法真正描述
how the universe should work with one of these things.
宇宙是如何与黑洞一起运作的
They don’t make sense.
黑洞难以理解
The universe shouldn’t be able to lose information.
宇宙不应该会丢失信息
So how do you get information
那么当空间本身产生了弯曲
when space itself are bent in and nothing comes out?
却没有东西出来时 你该如何获取信息呢?
Black holes may be the key to where the next physics has to go.
黑洞可能是物理学进一步发展的关键
We all know that we need a next Einstein, a next quantum theory,
众所周知 我们需要下一个爱因斯坦 下一个量子理论
something that actually describes
我们需要知道
how gravity works in very intense situations like a black hole.
重力是如何在黑洞这样的激烈环境中运作的
Now we’re actually observing black holes well enough
我们现在已经能很好地观察黑洞了
that we really have to get on this.
我们确信自己会继续进行下去
We really have to figure out
我们也确信自己会弄清
how the universe works around one of these things.
宇宙究竟是如何围绕黑洞运转的
And we may end up learning what the universe itself really is.
我们最终也许能认识到宇宙真正的样子

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视频概述

黑洞及其信息与能量之间的关系。

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视频来源

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