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美国是一个国家吗?

Is the United States a Country?

本视频由RealLifeLore与文多弗制作公司合作完成
This is a video by RealLifeLore done in a collaboration with Wendover Productions.
什么是国家
What is a country?
根据传统的定义 国家是指对某一片地理区域拥有主权
The traditional definition is a state with sovereignty over a geographic area
有常住的人口 确定的疆界 唯一的政府
with a permanent population, defined territory, one government,
以及同其他主权国家建立外交关系的能力
and the capacity to enter into relations with other sovereign states.
所以美国很好地符合这些要求吗?
So does the United States perfectly match this description?
或者更贴切的说 美国到底是什么
And, perhaps even more importantly, what exactly is the United States?
当你说起“美利坚合众国”时
When you say the words “United States of America”,
你可能会认为这个国家在美洲
You sort of assume the country is in America.
但事实不是这样的
But that’s not really the case
美洲是指北美和南美大陆
America means the continents of North and South America
但是事实上 只有99.5%美利坚合众国的领土位于此处
But only 99.5 percent of the United States of America is actually located here
1.6%的美国人生活在美洲之外
and 1.6 percent of all Americans live outside of America
大部分这些不在美洲范围 但仍属于美国的领土的地区 位于加勒比海和太平洋的岛屿上
Most of this non American, yet still American land is located on islands in both the Caribbean and Pacific.
位于太平洋地区的夏威夷州是美国50个州中唯一一个在本土之外的州
In the Pacific, we have Hawaii, which is the only state out of 50 to be located outside of America
还有一些其他的岛屿也一起组成了人们所说的“美国领地”
And a bunch of other islands that together make up something called US Territory
领地是美国的一部分 分为合并领地和未合并领地两种
Territories are part of the US and are divided between Incorporated and Unincorporated territory
但是它们都是由国会直接管理的
But they are all directly governed by Congress,
也就是说 它们实质上遵循的是50个州的管理决策
which means that they are essentially ruled by what the 50 states decide.
他们既没有自己的代表 也没有投票选举总统的权力
All without any representation for themselves and without the ability to even vote for president
在这些领地中 最遥远的是关岛
The furthest away of these territories is Guam
它只是美国领土的一小部分 距离最近夏威夷州3633英里
which is a little chunk of America 3633 miles away from the nearest state,Hawaii
关岛距离美国国会大厦 即制定法律以管理这个小岛的地方 有7912英里
And 7,912 miles away from the US Capital building, where the laws governing the island are decided
约有16万人居住在关岛 除此之外还有四个其他岛屿有人居住
There are 160,000 people who live on Guam and there are 4 other island territories with people on them
即北马里亚纳群岛 美属萨摩亚群岛 美属维尔京群岛和波多黎各
The Northern Mariana Islands, American Samoa, The US Virgin Islands, and Puerto Rico
另外还有8个岛屿分散在此 但是由于无人居住 所以它们并没有那么重要
There are 8 other islands scattered around there too, but nobody lives on those, so they’re not really that important
美国宪法只是部分适用于这些领地
The US Constitution only partially applies in all of these territories
而这使得这里的情形日渐尴尬
which is getting more and more awkward all the time
如波多黎各这样 人口超过了这21个真正的州的地区
In a place like Puerto Rico which has a higher population than these 21 actual states
波多黎各很有可能在将来的某一天成为第51个州
Puerto Rico may very well someday in the future actually become the 51st state
但是对于这个太平洋中部孤立无援的小岛来说 这几无可能
But a place that likely won’t anytime soon is this tiny island in the middle of nowhere in the Pacific
这里是巴尔米拉环礁 无人之礁
This is Palmyra Atoll, home of nobody,
但它也是美国唯一的合并领地 也就是说美国宪法完全适用于这个地方
but the only incorporated territory of the United States, meaning that the US Constitution fully applies here
无论出于什么原因 任何一个在这里出生的人 都会自动成为美国公民
And anybody born here for whatever reason automatically becomes a US citizen
奇怪的是 有权力管理这个岛屿的人是美国总统
Weirdly, the person who is given the right to administer this island
我敢肯定 这件事在总统的工作清单上一定位于前列
is the U.S. President, which I am sure is probably very high on the list of Presidential things to be doing.
总统还必须担心一些与其他国家有争议的美国领土
The President also has to worry about some U.S. land that is contested with other countries.
就像这两个终年被鸟粪覆盖的无人小岛 哥伦比亚亦宣称对其拥有主权
like these two uninhabited islands covered in bird poop that are claimed by Colombia
或者是缅因州海岸附近的这些岛屿 美国和加拿大同时宣称对其拥有主权
or these islands off the coast of Maine that are claimed by both the U.S. and Canada
这就不可思议地意味着 如果你在他们中的任何一个地方生育
which strangely means if you were to give birth on either of them
你的孩子会同时自动成为美国公民和加拿大公民
your child would automatically gain both american and canadian citizenship
而这其中 也许是最受争议的是
and perhaps most controversially of all
位于古巴的一块名叫关塔那摩湾的弹丸之地
this piece of land in Cuba called Guantanamo Bay
他实际上并不是个小地方
its actually not a small space
关塔那摩湾的面积大于包括圣马力诺在内的五个联合国承认的主权国家
Guantanamo Bay is larger than five UN recognized sovereign states
它的大小相当于
and it is about the same size as the island of Jersey
处在英法两国之间的泽西岛
between England and France
古巴自1959年以来就一直宣称对该地区拥有主权
Cuba has laid claim to the territory ever since 1959
但美国到目前为止还是决定据为所有
but the United States has so far decided to keep it instead.
所以说美国国土实际上并不完全位于美洲
Now that’s all of America that isn’t actually located in America
但是我们目前所忽略的 美国其他99.5%的地区 又是怎样的呢
but what about the other 99.5% of the country that we have been neglecting so far
嗯……那就是和夏威夷州共同组成了美国剩余的版图的49个州了
Well.. that would be the 49 states that make up the rest of the United States along with Hawaii
各州有权选举国会的代表
The states have the power to elect representatives that are sent to congress
而国会则为整个合众国制定法律
which creates laws for the entire union
每个州都被国会赋予了相当大的自主权
the individual states are granted a considerable amount of power on their own by congress
他们同联邦政府 或者说中央政府共同分享这一权力
and they share this power with the federal or the national goverenment
州政府和联邦政府都可以通过各自独立的法律
the state and federal government are both allowed to pass their own separate laws which has
过去 “谁制定的法律更有效” 这一问题给国家带来了巨大的麻烦
caused a huge amount of trouble in the nation’s past over which laws are more valid
然而 南北战争一劳永逸地解决了这个问题
the civil war answered the question once and for all though however
联邦法律凌驾于州法律之上
federal law always wins over state law
南北战争同样决定了 一旦州选择加入了美国
the civil war also decided that states never have the right to leave the union
它们就永远都没有离开联邦的权力 即使在今天也是如此
once they have joined even today
所以一个州实际上可以通过公投来脱离联邦 但这不会被联邦政府认可
so a state could actually vote to leave the union but it would not ever be recognized by the federal government
各州同样也不能宣布联邦法律无效
states also cannot ever declare a federal law to be invalid
但是他们可以通过将联邦政府宣布的非法行为合法化来解决这个问题
but they can kind of get around that by legalizing things that the federal government has declared illegal
最著名的例子就是大麻
The most famous instance of this is Marijuana
从联邦层面上来说 大麻在美国境内的任何地方依旧是非法的
which continues to be illegal everywhere in the United States on the federal level.
但是在以下州内它已经完全合法化 无论用作何种用途:
but has been fully legalized for all uses in the states of
内华达州 缅因州
Nevada Maine
科罗拉多州 华盛顿州
Colorado Washington
加利福利亚州 马萨诸塞州
California Massachusetts
阿拉斯加州以及俄勒冈州
Alaska and Oregon
因为联邦法律总是高于州法律
Since federal law always wins over state law
理论上 联邦政府可以在任何时间 进入任何州 运用联邦法律执法
The federal government could in theory, at any time, enter any of these states with federal law enforcement
并逮捕成千上万在州法律看来是合法的 但在联邦法律层面上不合法的人
and arrest the hundreds of thousands of people participating in legal state laws but illegal federal laws
他们不采取这一行动的唯一原因是 他们觉得这不值得在此浪费时间
The only reason why they haven’t yet is just because they’ve decided that it isn’t worth their time
但是 如果州能够忽视联邦法律 或者合法化法理上非法的事物
But if states can ignore federal law or even legalize things that are technically illegal
那么我们对一个国家的定义 尤其是主权部分的定义又是什么呢
Then what does it say about our definition of a country particularly the sovereignty part
在美国 有多少人更认同自己州的身份
Further how many people in states identify more with their own individual state
而非自己的国家身份呢?
over the actual country of the United States?
尽管我们之前讨论过脱离联邦的非法性
Despite how we just discussed earlier the illegality of secession
但在美国仍存在活跃的分裂主义运动 不管是在
the states that continued to have active separatist movement regardless of that are
阿拉斯加州 夏威夷州 加利福利亚州 俄勒冈州 华盛顿州 弗蒙特州 新罕不什尔州
Alaska, Hawaii, California, Oregon, Washington, Vermont, New Hampshire
还是美国的前南部邦联
the former Confederate States of America
以及最出名的 德克萨斯州
and most famously, Texas
可是地处偏远且较有影响的仅有:德克萨斯州 夏威夷州 以及阿拉斯加 这也许是三者当中最大的
The only remotely significant ones however are: Texas, Hawaii, and probably biggest of all, Alaska.
根据最近的民调 阿拉斯加独立党的支持率约为6%
where the Alaska Independence Party is currently polling at around 6% of the population
甚至在1990年 他们的候选人还当选州长
and even got their candidate elected governor of the state back in 1990
最后 还有一种更有效的方式来挑战一个国家的定义
And finally, there is one more significant way that you can challenge the definition of a country
关于对美国的定义
in regards to the United States
回到我们开篇所述 有关固定领土的部分
The defined territory part that we went over in the beginning
这张地图遗漏了大量的印第安人保留区
This map leaves out the numerous American Indian reservations
其在美国境内的共计326个
located within the U.S. of which there are 326
其中很多都很小 但是有12个保留地实际上比罗德岛州还大
Many of them are very small but 12 reservations are actually larger than the state of Rhode Island
最大的有 瓦霍瓦民族保留地 大小相当于西弗吉尼亚州或
And the biggest one, the Navajo Nation reservation, is about the same size as West Virginia
或——对观看视频的欧洲人而言——拉脱维亚
or Latvia for the Europeans watching this video
而且有近20万人的人口
and has a population of nearly 200,000 people
这些保留地拥有超过100万的人口
Together, this reservations have a population of over 1 million people
面积约等同于爱荷华州 或者比白俄罗斯大一点
and take up a space the size of Idaho or a little larger than Belarus
这些保留区被赋予了所谓的部落主权
These reservations are granted something called Tribal Sovereignty
这赋予了他们在美国领土内管理自己的权利
which gives them the rights to govern themselves within the territory of the United States
联邦政府承认这些保留区有点像独立国家
The federal government recognizes these reservations sort of like independent countries
称他们为“国内属国”
calling them officially “Domestic Dependent Nations”
他们对自己的土地有管辖权
They have jurisdiction over their own land
并且可以通过独立法律
and can pass laws separate
甚至于违背州和联邦法律
or even in violation of both state and federal laws
这就是为什么世界上最大的赌场坐落在俄克拉荷马州的一个保留区
which is why the largest casino in the world is located on one of these reservations in Oklahoma
尽管在俄克拉荷马州 赌博是非法的
despite the fact that gambling is illegal in Oklahoma
你可以在任何领地或保留区进行赌博
You can gamble anywhere on the territory or the reservation
但是一旦你回到了州的领土范围 它就会立马变成非法的
but as soon as you step off back into state territory, it suddenly becomes instantly illegal again
保留区有时甚至有他们自己的法庭 他们自己的警察部队
Reservations sometimes even have their own court, their own police forces
选举他们自己的总统 甚至向国外派遣外交使团
elect their own president and even lead foreign delegations abroad
其代表并非代表美国
as representatives not of the United States
而是代表保留地
but of the reservation
因此 如果你把所有印第安人的保留地都分离出来
Therefore you could actually really draw the United States to look like this
就可以把美国绘制成这样
if you took out all American Indian reservations
各自之间非常独立
which are extremely independent anyway
但是所有剩下的州都有自己独特的法律
But all of the remaining states can have their own unique laws
甚至无视国会通过的一些联邦法律
and even disregard some federal laws that are passed by Congress
唯一一个100%由联邦政府管理的领域是华盛顿特区
So the only territory that is 100% governed by the federal government
它不属于任何一个州 或者构成美国领地的岛屿的一部分
is this city of Washington D.C., which isn’t a part of any state and the islands that make up the US territories
所以这又引出了这个问题 美国到底是什么
So that really begs the question again, what exactly is the United States
美国真的算一个国家吗
and is the United States actually a country?
欧盟其实很像美国
So the European Union is actually a lot like the United States
它们都由许多不同的国家(州)组成
They are both composed of a bunch of different states,
他们都有开放的边界
they both have open borders,
他们都使用一种共同的货币
they each have a common currency,
他们都由来自不同国家(州)的代表组建政府
a sential government with representative from the different states
唯一不同的是 美国是一个国家
The only big difference is that the United States is a country
欧盟则由国家组成
And the European Union is made up of countries.
所以我在我的频道上制作了这个视频
So I made a video over at my channel
文多弗制作公司
Wendover Productions
回答问题:欧盟算是个国家吗
answering the question: Is the European Union a country?
好的 所以快去看看文多弗制作公司的视频吧!
Ok, so go ahead and check out Wendover Productions’ video next.
如果你喜欢这期关于美国的视频
If you enjoyed this video about the United States
之后你就一定会爱上他的关于欧盟的视频
then you’ll certainly enjoy his video about the European Union
我希望你能点击这里订阅我的频道
I hope that you’ll subscribe to my channel by clicking here.
你也可以访问我的Patreon 获得一些酷酷的奖励
You can visit my Patreon and receive cool rewards,
比如点击这里 在未来的视频话题上投票
like voting on on future video topics, by clicking over here.
一如既往地 非常感谢你们的观看
And as always, thank you so much for watching.
[音乐]
♫♫

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