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美国是一个国家吗? – 译学馆
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Is the United States a Country?

This is a video by RealLifeLore done in a collaboration with Wendover Productions.
What is a country?
根据传统的定义 国家是指对某一片地理区域拥有主权
The traditional definition is a state with sovereignty over a geographic area
有常住的人口 确定的疆界 唯一的政府
with a permanent population, defined territory, one government,
and the capacity to enter into relations with other sovereign states.
So does the United States perfectly match this description?
或者更贴切的说 美国到底是什么
And, perhaps even more importantly, what exactly is the United States?
When you say the words “United States of America”,
You sort of assume the country is in America.
But that’s not really the case
America means the continents of North and South America
但是事实上 只有99.5%美利坚合众国的领土位于此处
But only 99.5 percent of the United States of America is actually located here
and 1.6 percent of all Americans live outside of America
大部分这些不在美洲范围 但仍属于美国的领土的地区 位于加勒比海和太平洋的岛屿上
Most of this non American, yet still American land is located on islands in both the Caribbean and Pacific.
In the Pacific, we have Hawaii, which is the only state out of 50 to be located outside of America
And a bunch of other islands that together make up something called US Territory
领地是美国的一部分 分为合并领地和未合并领地两种
Territories are part of the US and are divided between Incorporated and Unincorporated territory
But they are all directly governed by Congress,
也就是说 它们实质上遵循的是50个州的管理决策
which means that they are essentially ruled by what the 50 states decide.
他们既没有自己的代表 也没有投票选举总统的权力
All without any representation for themselves and without the ability to even vote for president
在这些领地中 最遥远的是关岛
The furthest away of these territories is Guam
它只是美国领土的一小部分 距离最近夏威夷州3633英里
which is a little chunk of America 3633 miles away from the nearest state,Hawaii
关岛距离美国国会大厦 即制定法律以管理这个小岛的地方 有7912英里
And 7,912 miles away from the US Capital building, where the laws governing the island are decided
约有16万人居住在关岛 除此之外还有四个其他岛屿有人居住
There are 160,000 people who live on Guam and there are 4 other island territories with people on them
即北马里亚纳群岛 美属萨摩亚群岛 美属维尔京群岛和波多黎各
The Northern Mariana Islands, American Samoa, The US Virgin Islands, and Puerto Rico
另外还有8个岛屿分散在此 但是由于无人居住 所以它们并没有那么重要
There are 8 other islands scattered around there too, but nobody lives on those, so they’re not really that important
The US Constitution only partially applies in all of these territories
which is getting more and more awkward all the time
如波多黎各这样 人口超过了这21个真正的州的地区
In a place like Puerto Rico which has a higher population than these 21 actual states
Puerto Rico may very well someday in the future actually become the 51st state
但是对于这个太平洋中部孤立无援的小岛来说 这几无可能
But a place that likely won’t anytime soon is this tiny island in the middle of nowhere in the Pacific
这里是巴尔米拉环礁 无人之礁
This is Palmyra Atoll, home of nobody,
但它也是美国唯一的合并领地 也就是说美国宪法完全适用于这个地方
but the only incorporated territory of the United States, meaning that the US Constitution fully applies here
无论出于什么原因 任何一个在这里出生的人 都会自动成为美国公民
And anybody born here for whatever reason automatically becomes a US citizen
奇怪的是 有权力管理这个岛屿的人是美国总统
Weirdly, the person who is given the right to administer this island
我敢肯定 这件事在总统的工作清单上一定位于前列
is the U.S. President, which I am sure is probably very high on the list of Presidential things to be doing.
The President also has to worry about some U.S. land that is contested with other countries.
就像这两个终年被鸟粪覆盖的无人小岛 哥伦比亚亦宣称对其拥有主权
like these two uninhabited islands covered in bird poop that are claimed by Colombia
或者是缅因州海岸附近的这些岛屿 美国和加拿大同时宣称对其拥有主权
or these islands off the coast of Maine that are claimed by both the U.S. and Canada
这就不可思议地意味着 如果你在他们中的任何一个地方生育
which strangely means if you were to give birth on either of them
your child would automatically gain both american and canadian citizenship
而这其中 也许是最受争议的是
and perhaps most controversially of all
this piece of land in Cuba called Guantanamo Bay
its actually not a small space
Guantanamo Bay is larger than five UN recognized sovereign states
and it is about the same size as the island of Jersey
between England and France
Cuba has laid claim to the territory ever since 1959
but the United States has so far decided to keep it instead.
Now that’s all of America that isn’t actually located in America
但是我们目前所忽略的 美国其他99.5%的地区 又是怎样的呢
but what about the other 99.5% of the country that we have been neglecting so far
Well.. that would be the 49 states that make up the rest of the United States along with Hawaii
The states have the power to elect representatives that are sent to congress
which creates laws for the entire union
the individual states are granted a considerable amount of power on their own by congress
他们同联邦政府 或者说中央政府共同分享这一权力
and they share this power with the federal or the national goverenment
the state and federal government are both allowed to pass their own separate laws which has
过去 “谁制定的法律更有效” 这一问题给国家带来了巨大的麻烦
caused a huge amount of trouble in the nation’s past over which laws are more valid
然而 南北战争一劳永逸地解决了这个问题
the civil war answered the question once and for all though however
federal law always wins over state law
南北战争同样决定了 一旦州选择加入了美国
the civil war also decided that states never have the right to leave the union
它们就永远都没有离开联邦的权力 即使在今天也是如此
once they have joined even today
所以一个州实际上可以通过公投来脱离联邦 但这不会被联邦政府认可
so a state could actually vote to leave the union but it would not ever be recognized by the federal government
states also cannot ever declare a federal law to be invalid
but they can kind of get around that by legalizing things that the federal government has declared illegal
The most famous instance of this is Marijuana
从联邦层面上来说 大麻在美国境内的任何地方依旧是非法的
which continues to be illegal everywhere in the United States on the federal level.
但是在以下州内它已经完全合法化 无论用作何种用途:
but has been fully legalized for all uses in the states of
内华达州 缅因州
Nevada Maine
科罗拉多州 华盛顿州
Colorado Washington
加利福利亚州 马萨诸塞州
California Massachusetts
Alaska and Oregon
Since federal law always wins over state law
理论上 联邦政府可以在任何时间 进入任何州 运用联邦法律执法
The federal government could in theory, at any time, enter any of these states with federal law enforcement
并逮捕成千上万在州法律看来是合法的 但在联邦法律层面上不合法的人
and arrest the hundreds of thousands of people participating in legal state laws but illegal federal laws
他们不采取这一行动的唯一原因是 他们觉得这不值得在此浪费时间
The only reason why they haven’t yet is just because they’ve decided that it isn’t worth their time
但是 如果州能够忽视联邦法律 或者合法化法理上非法的事物
But if states can ignore federal law or even legalize things that are technically illegal
那么我们对一个国家的定义 尤其是主权部分的定义又是什么呢
Then what does it say about our definition of a country particularly the sovereignty part
在美国 有多少人更认同自己州的身份
Further how many people in states identify more with their own individual state
over the actual country of the United States?
Despite how we just discussed earlier the illegality of secession
但在美国仍存在活跃的分裂主义运动 不管是在
the states that continued to have active separatist movement regardless of that are
阿拉斯加州 夏威夷州 加利福利亚州 俄勒冈州 华盛顿州 弗蒙特州 新罕不什尔州
Alaska, Hawaii, California, Oregon, Washington, Vermont, New Hampshire
the former Confederate States of America
以及最出名的 德克萨斯州
and most famously, Texas
可是地处偏远且较有影响的仅有:德克萨斯州 夏威夷州 以及阿拉斯加 这也许是三者当中最大的
The only remotely significant ones however are: Texas, Hawaii, and probably biggest of all, Alaska.
根据最近的民调 阿拉斯加独立党的支持率约为6%
where the Alaska Independence Party is currently polling at around 6% of the population
甚至在1990年 他们的候选人还当选州长
and even got their candidate elected governor of the state back in 1990
最后 还有一种更有效的方式来挑战一个国家的定义
And finally, there is one more significant way that you can challenge the definition of a country
in regards to the United States
回到我们开篇所述 有关固定领土的部分
The defined territory part that we went over in the beginning
This map leaves out the numerous American Indian reservations
located within the U.S. of which there are 326
其中很多都很小 但是有12个保留地实际上比罗德岛州还大
Many of them are very small but 12 reservations are actually larger than the state of Rhode Island
最大的有 瓦霍瓦民族保留地 大小相当于西弗吉尼亚州或
And the biggest one, the Navajo Nation reservation, is about the same size as West Virginia
or Latvia for the Europeans watching this video
and has a population of nearly 200,000 people
Together, this reservations have a population of over 1 million people
面积约等同于爱荷华州 或者比白俄罗斯大一点
and take up a space the size of Idaho or a little larger than Belarus
These reservations are granted something called Tribal Sovereignty
which gives them the rights to govern themselves within the territory of the United States
The federal government recognizes these reservations sort of like independent countries
calling them officially “Domestic Dependent Nations”
They have jurisdiction over their own land
and can pass laws separate
or even in violation of both state and federal laws
which is why the largest casino in the world is located on one of these reservations in Oklahoma
尽管在俄克拉荷马州 赌博是非法的
despite the fact that gambling is illegal in Oklahoma
You can gamble anywhere on the territory or the reservation
但是一旦你回到了州的领土范围 它就会立马变成非法的
but as soon as you step off back into state territory, it suddenly becomes instantly illegal again
保留区有时甚至有他们自己的法庭 他们自己的警察部队
Reservations sometimes even have their own court, their own police forces
选举他们自己的总统 甚至向国外派遣外交使团
elect their own president and even lead foreign delegations abroad
as representatives not of the United States
but of the reservation
因此 如果你把所有印第安人的保留地都分离出来
Therefore you could actually really draw the United States to look like this
if you took out all American Indian reservations
which are extremely independent anyway
But all of the remaining states can have their own unique laws
and even disregard some federal laws that are passed by Congress
So the only territory that is 100% governed by the federal government
它不属于任何一个州 或者构成美国领地的岛屿的一部分
is this city of Washington D.C., which isn’t a part of any state and the islands that make up the US territories
所以这又引出了这个问题 美国到底是什么
So that really begs the question again, what exactly is the United States
and is the United States actually a country?
So the European Union is actually a lot like the United States
They are both composed of a bunch of different states,
they both have open borders,
they each have a common currency,
a sential government with representative from the different states
唯一不同的是 美国是一个国家
The only big difference is that the United States is a country
And the European Union is made up of countries.
So I made a video over at my channel
Wendover Productions
answering the question: Is the European Union a country?
好的 所以快去看看文多弗制作公司的视频吧!
Ok, so go ahead and check out Wendover Productions’ video next.
If you enjoyed this video about the United States
then you’ll certainly enjoy his video about the European Union
I hope that you’ll subscribe to my channel by clicking here.
你也可以访问我的Patreon 获得一些酷酷的奖励
You can visit my Patreon and receive cool rewards,
比如点击这里 在未来的视频话题上投票
like voting on on future video topics, by clicking over here.
一如既往地 非常感谢你们的观看
And as always, thank you so much for watching.



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