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关于意志力

Is the number 1 fact about willpower wrong?

一口心理学
如果你曾为提升自己的意志力
If you’ve ever tried finding tips
而找方法的话
on how to have more willpower.
你可能已听过自我损耗这个词了
You may have heard the term ego depletion before.
这指的是一种认为
This refers to the idea that
人的意志力是有限的说法
you only have a limited amount of willpower.
因此 每次你消耗意志力的时候
So, each time you use it,
比如抵御垃圾食品
eg when resisting junk food
或拒绝拖延
or choosing not to procrastinate,
你就失去了一些意志力
you’re draining some of it away,
这就是为什么工作一天后
hence why people turn into couch potatoes
人们会瘫在沙发上
after a long day’s work.
有证据已证明了这点
Now, as evidence,
在一个开创性的研究中
in one groundbreaking study,
参与者必须要么拒绝吃萝卜
participants had to either resist eating radishes,
(先前已经证明都没有问题)
which presumably no one had problems with,
或者拒绝吃巧克力
or resist eating chocolate,
(一个更耗费意志力的任务)
a much more draining task.
最后 给了两组参与者一个不可解决的问题
Afterwards, both groups were given an unsolvable problem.
那些抵御巧克力耗费意志力的
those who had their willpowers depleted
参赛者
by resisting chocolate
比那些只抵御萝卜的参与者
gave up twice as fast as those
放弃速度快了两倍
who simply had to resist radishes.
这篇论文后来成为
This paper went on to become
心理学已确立最稳固的研究之一
one of the most established studies in psychology.
因此 如果自我损耗是事实
Therefore, if ego depletion is a thing,
那么应对技巧就是
then the trick is:
不要一次确立太多目标
not to load on too many goals at once.
否则 假如你想一次完成
Otherwise, if you’re trying to eat healthy,
健康饮食 戒烟和多社交的目标
stop smoking and be more social all at once,
你会很快耗尽意志力
you’ll quickly run out of willpower
最终一只手拿香烟 另一只拿爆米花
and end up home alone with a smoke in one hand
独自在家思考人生
and popcorn in the other.
到现在为止 一切都看上去都没有问题
Okay, so far, everything seems good.
到令人警醒的是 这个简单的影响背后的研究
Yet, alarmingly the research behind this simple effect
是非常复杂的
is amazingly complex.
最大的问题是
The biggest question is:
这个影响真实存在吗?
does this effect actually exist,
或者所有这些自我帮助建议是错的吗?
or are all these self-help advice wrong?
正如你将看到的 当涉及到科学报道时
As you’ll see, when it comes to scientific journalism,
大批主流媒体的文章
a lot of the mainstream articles
只涉及到事情的表面
only brush the surface of what’s going on.
首先
To start off,
让我们检验一下这个元分析
let’s examine this meta analysis.
它有超过198个自我损耗独立实验
It has over 198 independent tests of ego depletion
还有超过1万名参与者
and includes over 10,000 participants,
所以看起来是相当可信的
so it seems pretty trustworthy.
那么它到底揭示了什么呢?
What did it reveal?
几乎所有研究都为自我损耗找到了证据
Well, almost all the studies found evidence for ego depletion,
总之 这个现象对我们有一定的影响
and overall, this phenomenon has a moderate effect on us.
那么 问题在哪里呢?
So, what’s the problem?
遗憾的是 可能有发表偏倚的影响
Unfortunately there could be publication bias at play,
或许有更多实验没能证明自我损耗
perhaps there are more studies which failed to show the effects of ego depletion
而这些没有发表出来
but they just haven’t been published.
实际上 最近我们看到越来越多的研究
In fact, recently we’re seeing more and more studies
没什么发现
that show no findings,
举例来说 这两个研究
For example,these two studies,
两组都有200名参与者
both of which included about 200 participants,
试图为自我损耗重复经典的实验设计
tried following the classic design for ego depletion
先损耗参与者的意志力
deplete the participants willpower
接着测试他们最后在需努力任务的表现
and then measure their performance on an effortful task afterwards.
你可能会预计对于最后的任务
Now you’d expect there to be worse performance
他们的表现最糟糕
on the later task.
然而 这两组实验都没有发现自我损耗的证据
Yet, both studies found no evidence for ego depletion.
另外 更多元分析已经出现
Furthermore, more meta analysis have since come out,
从中我们可以试图
which try to factor out the publication bias
排除发表偏倚的影响
from the final analysis.
不管用哪种分析方法
Regardless of which statistical method used,
所有数据都显示出
All of them suggests that
我们一直都高估了自我损耗的力量
we’ve been overestimating the strength of ego depletion.
一些人甚至得出自我损耗不存在的结论
Some conclude ego depletion isn’t even real.
所以 考虑到发表偏倚可能会夸大结论
So, to think that publication bias could inflate a result,
这已足够让人警惕
that much is alarming.
在这些之上 有另一层复杂性
Now there’s another layer of complexity on top of all these,
最近已经有证据证明
There’s recently been evidence
你对于意志力的信念
that your beliefs about willpower
确实影响自我损耗的作用
actually influence the effect of ego depletion.
比如 如果你相信意志力是有限的
For example, if you believe that willpower is limited,
或许你用它作为
perhaps you use that as an excuse
完成任务后懈怠的借口
and slack off after you finish your task.
但是 如果你相信意志力是无限的
But, if you believe that willpower is unlimited,
或许你只会继续保持精力
perhaps you’ll just keep powering on.
在一次研究中 分发给参与者一个偏见问卷调查
In one study, participants were given a bias questionnaire.
一些书面声明诸如
Some read statements like
做费力的任务可以使你劳累
working on a strenuous task can make you feel tired,
而另外一些书面声明诸如
while others read statements like
做费力的任务可以使你对
working on a strenuous task can
接下来的挑战感到精力充沛
make you feel energized for further challenges.
出乎意料的是 如果你读过意志力有限的说法
Surprisingly, if you read about limited willpower,
你在下次做任务时就会自我损耗
you’d become ego depleted on the second task.
但是如果你读过意志力无限的说法
But if you read about unlimited willpower,
你就不会表现出任何自我损耗的迹象
you wouldn’t show any signs of ego depletion.
所以是这些关于自我损耗的说法
So, is all this talk about ego depletion
真的创造了自我应验的预言吗?
actually creating a self-fulfilling prophecy?
另外 这里还有更多长期证据
Furthermore, if you want more long-term evidence of this,
这篇论文在5星期的时间内
this paper measured a hundred and fifty students
测试了150名学生
over a five-week period.
比起相信意志力有限的学生
Now, compared to students who believe that willpower was limited,
相信意志力无限的学生更少拖延
those who believe that willpower was unlimited procrastinated less.
他们的平均绩点也更高
They also achieved a higher GPA,
更重要的是 这种作用仅仅发生在
importantly, this effect only happened for students
那些高负荷的学生身上
who are under a heavy workload.
告诉每个人我们的意志力是无限的
So would it be more empowering
会让他们更有能量吗?
to tell everyone that our willpower is unlimited?
最后这意味着自我损耗并不真的存在吗?
And ultimately does this mean ego depletion doesn’t really exist?
现在来说 最好不要相信任何
For now, it’s best not to base any life hacks
关于自我损耗的生命秘诀
on ego depletion.
但重点是
But the point is,
对于大量的流行科学来说 它背后真正的调查研究
for a lot of pop science, the actual research behind it
并不真的那么可靠
isn’t really that solid.
因此 下次遇到科学建议时
Therefore, next time you’re relying on scientific advice,
花点时间阅读背后的文献
take a little time to read the literature behind it,
你可能会发现那个建议是完全错误的
you may find that it’s completely wrong.

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视频概述

视频探讨自我损耗的定义 以及是否真实存在

听录译者

洛洛

翻译译者

波妞妞

审核员

审核员 DL

视频来源

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=gnSBnQo9-UM

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