未登录,请登录后再发表信息
最新评论 (0)
播放视频

抗生素的未来是要去海底去寻找么?

Is The Future Of Antibiotics At The Bottom Of The Ocean?

【播放音乐】
[MUSIC PLAYING]
解说员:远离加州的海岸
NARRATOR: Off the coast of California,
加州大学圣克鲁斯分校的科学家们
scientists from UC Santa Cruz
正在搜索海洋
are scouring the ocean
去寻找他们所期待的
for what they hope
打击一种新耐药超级细菌繁殖的关键
is the key to fighting a new breed of drug-resistant superbugs.
BRYSON VOIRIN: 所以 我们在这儿 在蒙特雷湾
BRYSON VOIRIN: So we’re here in Monterey Bay
寻找下一个潜在医疗突破
looking for the next potential medical breakthrough.
但是我们要怎么做呢
But how are we going to do that?
ROGER LININGTON: 这样我们首先要做的是
ROGER LININGTON: So the first thing we need to do is
让我们的潜水员收集样本
make our scuba diver collect the samples.
所以我们要把这个环状物带下去
And so we’re going to take this ring down there.
然后我们要在潜水的过程中
And we’re going to make pairs of duplicate samples
在尽可能离散的位置采集成对的重复样本
during the dive in as many discrete locations as we can,
然后把这些样本带回实验室进行检查
and then take these samples back to the lab for workup.
BRIAN VOIRIN: 所以水有多冷
BRIAN VOIRIN: And how cold is the water?
ROGER LININGTON:噢 水是55华氏度 所以
ROGER LININGTON: Oh. The water’s 55. So.
BRIAN VOIRIN:你有一套干的潜水服ROGER LININGTON: 我有我的干的潜水服
BRIAN VOIRIN: You’ve got a dry suit.ROGER LININGTON: I’ve got my dry suit.
你正穿着一套湿的潜水服
You’re wearing a wet suit.
我们会看到我们是怎么害怕的
We’ll see how we fear.
为解药潜水
Diving for a cure
所以在约20年的时间内
So there hasn’t been a new antibiotic
还没有一种新的抗生素被开发出来
developed in about 20 years.
然而在医院里 微生物对现有抗生素的耐药率
And the rate of resistance to existing antibiotics
可以升高至40%到60%
in hospitals can run upwards of 40% to 60%.
考虑到把一种药物推向市场需要大约15年的时间
Given that it takes about 15 years to bring a drug to market,
抗生素发现领域有一个真正紧迫的危机
there was a real pressing crisis in the antibiotic discovery arena.
解说员:根据美国疾病预防控制中心发布的信息,
NARRATOR: According to the CDC,
在美国至少两百万人
at least two million people in the US
受耐药菌感染
become infected with drug-resistant bacteria.
然而每年至少两万三千人死于这些感染
And at least 23,000 die each year as a result of these infections.
BRYSON VOIRIN:你说这是一场危机
BRYSON VOIRIN: you say it’s a crisis.
我是说 如果让你以1到10来评估它
I mean, if you had to rate it on a scale of 1 to 10,
我们在抗生素上的危机是在多少
where are we at on the antibiotic crisis.
ROGER LININGTON: 11
ROGER LININGTON: 11.
这是非常严重的
It’s very serious.
我们将回到没有抗生素的时代
We are about to return to a pre-antibiotic era, where
甚至基本手术和其他医疗手段
even basic surgeries and other medical procedures
会让人死于败血症
can lead to death by septicemia
和其他无法无法治愈的细菌性病原体
and other untreatable bacterial pathogens.
解说员:抗生素的历史比较短
NARRATOR: The history of antibiotics is relatively short.
1928年 苏格兰科学家 亚历山·大弗莱明
In 1928, Scottish scientist Alexander Fleming
发现能消灭细菌的青霉素
discovered penicillin capable of killing bacteria.
科学家霍华德·弗洛里和恩斯特·钱恩
Scientists Howard Florey and Ernst Chain
然后在二战期间及时批量生产给盟军使用
then mass-produced it in time for use on Allied forces during World War II,
第一个例子就是
the first example in which
士兵死在战场上多余死于感染
more soldiers died in battle than from infection.
它彻底改变了现代医学的世界
It drastically changed the world of modern medicine
并且极大地延长了人类平均寿命在1928年 平均寿命是57岁
and extended the average human life span significantly. Average life span in 1928s is 57 years old.
在20世纪30年代 平均寿命是61岁在20世纪40年代 平均寿命是65岁
在20世纪50年代 平均寿命是69岁
在20世纪60年代 平均寿命是70岁
在20世纪70年代 平均寿命是72岁
Average life span in 1930s is 61 years old.Average life span in 1940s is 65 years old.
Average life span in 1950s is 69 years old.
Average life span in 1960s is 70 years old.
Average life span in 1970s is 72 years old.
在那之后并没有更多抗生素被开发出来
Not many more antibiotics have been developed since then.
BRYSON VOIRIN: 如今为什么新种类抗生素的发现被搁置在一旁
BRYSON VOIRIN: Now, why has the discovery of new antibiotics
在过去的30或40年内无人问津
kind of fallen by the wayside in the past 30 or 40 years?
ROGER LININGTON:开发新的抗生素
ROGER LININGTON: Developing new antibiotics
并不是赚取有效利润的最有效方法
is not the most effective way to make a steady profit.
如果你为哮喘或糖尿病而开发一种新药
If you make a new drug for asthma or diabetes,
那种患者们可能余生每天都要服用的药品
that’s a drug which patients will take likely every day for the rest of their lives.
所以从经济的视角来看
So from an economic perspective,
制药公司并不会有太大动力
drug companies don’t have much incentive
去开发新的抗生素药物
to develop new antibiotic drugs.
解说员:当1945年 弗莱明在接受他的诺贝尔奖时
NARRATOR: As Fleming accepted his Nobel Prize in 1945,
他警告道误用和滥用抗生素
he warned that the misuse and overuse of antibiotics
会导致耐药菌的产生
could result in drug-resistant bacteria.
然而他是对的
And he was right.
ROGER LININGTON: 如果你大量使用抗生素
ROGER LININGTON: If you put antibiotics into heavy use,
结果细菌最终会找到一种方法
then eventually bacteria will find a way
来对这些药物产生耐药性
to become resistant to those drugs.
如果对流感病人少量使用抗生素
If it hasn’t been helped by the poor use of antibiotics
并没有帮助的话
for people with flu-like symptoms,
如果你被病毒感染
if you have a viral infection, antibiotics don’t help.
然后使用更多的抗生素
And the more you take antibiotics,
你更多的帮助建立
the more you are helping to sort of build
一种耐药菌株的培养池
that pool of resistant strains.
BRYSON VOIRIN: 这有点像喊狼来了的男孩
BRYSON VOIRIN: It’s kind of like the boy who cried wolf.
就像 如果你总是喊狼来了
Like, if you cry wolf all the time
然后我们实际上有只狼
and then we actually have a wolf,
结果它就不管用了
then it doesn’t work.
ROGER LININGTON: 是的
ROGER LININGTON: Right.
就是这样
Exactly.
这些因素的组合导致了这个情况
It’s a combination of factors that have led to this.
解说员:Roger的潜水团队从海底
NARRATOR: Roger’s team of divers collect sand from the seafloor,
这一对于医学研究相对稳定
a relatively under steady environment for medical research,
但充满了未知化学因素的环境的地方采集沙子
but one that is rich with unknown chemistry.
这些科学家希望沙子里的微生物
These scientists hope that the microbes within the sand
将致使强力新药的产生来消灭细菌
will lead to new and powerful drugs to fight bacteria.
但是 搜索范围是非常大的
However, the search area is very large.
它可能需要数年时间来确认
And it may take years to determine
这些样品是否含有解药
if these samples hold a cure.
BRYSON VOIRIN: 所以 让我们看看样品
BRYSON VOIRIN: So let’s see the samples.
ROGER LININGTON: 好的
ROGER LININGTON: OK.
所以 我们在这
So here we are.
然后这是这次潜水我们设法获得的
So this is what we managed to get on this dive.
尽管肉眼看他们挺相似的
Although they may look pretty similar to the naked eye,
但是在微生物水平下
at the microbial level,
这些中的每一个都是一个完全不同的种群
every one of these is a completely different population.
BRYSON VOIRIN: 然而 它是 我是说它确实就是沙子
BRYSON VOIRIN: And it’s I mean it’s literally just sand.
ROGER LININGTON: 这只是沙子
ROGER LININGTON: It’s just sand.
因此 这个环境对科学只有很小的影响
So this is very low impact science on the environment,
但是潜在应用是巨大的
but the potential applications are huge.
所以接下来要发生的是 我们将要把沙子提取出来
So what happens next is we’ll take the sand,
把它放在培养皿中
put it on Petri dishes,
然后让这些微生物生长
and allow those microorganisms to grow.
然后 一个微生物学家会看着这些
And then, a microbiologist will look at those
并为化学研究而挑选特定的种类
and select specific species for study for their chemistry.
BRYSON VOIRIN: 所以 这个可以从这个中得到
BRYSON VOIRIN: So this could come from this.
ROGER LININGTON: 一点没错
ROGER LININGTON: Absolutely.
有可能在这个样本中的微生物
It’s possible that the microorganisms in this sample,
有天会制造出可以加到像这样的药片中
may one day make compounds
治疗疾病的化合物
which we can add to tablets like this to treat diseases.
BRYSON VOIRIN: 我们所寻找的解药可能在任何地方
BRYSON VOIRIN: The cure what we’re looking for could be anywhere,
在海里 在山上
in the ocean, in the mountains,
在天上
in the sky.
ROGER LININGTON: 对的
ROGER LININGTON: Right.
然而如果你尝试以随机方式做这个调查
And if you try to do that discovery in a random way,
你进入随机的环境
where you went into the environment
并且随机选择微生物
and picked microorganisms at random,
你将会失败
you would fail.
这有数以万计的
There are many millions of sequences
你还未调查的排序
that we have not yet investigated.
决定如何以有序的方式去做这个是
Deciding how to do that in an ordered way is
下一代天然产物科学家的挑战
the challenge for the next generation of natural product scientists.
2015年三月 白宫发布了一个五年计划以减缓耐药菌的传播 以及开发测试与治疗方案
In March 2015, the White House released a five year plan to slow the spread of drug resistant bacteria, as well as develop testing and treatment options.
希望在2020年减少 50-60%的耐药性疾病
The initiative hopes to reduce drug resistant illnesses by 50-60% by 2020.
说话者1: 这一集是Seeker Stories的一部分
SPEAKER 1: This episode is a part of Seeker Stories.
我们尝试给你带来世界各地的出色的故事
We’re trying to bring you cool stories from around the world.
但为了做到这个 你们需要订阅Seeker Stories
But in order to do that, you need to subscribe.
请点击按钮
So please click on that button.
并且感谢你们的观看
And thanks for watching.
解说员:在另一集的Seeker Stories
NARRATOR: On another episode of Seeker Stories.
说话者2:这个女人允许我们
SPEAKER 2: So this woman is allowing us
给这些熊拍照
to take pictures of the bears.
他们在这儿 在他们的笼子里
Here they are in their cages.

Hi.
真漂亮
So pretty.
所以 有一 二 三 四 五只 就在那儿
So there is one, two, three, four, five, right there.

发表评论

译制信息
视频概述
听录译者

收集自网络

翻译译者

审核员

自动通过审核

视频来源

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=xqj9QkcvUgo

相关推荐