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旁观者效应是真的吗? – 译学馆
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旁观者效应是真的吗?

Is the Bystander Effect Real?

[开场曲]
[♪ INTRO ]
如果你以前上过心理课
If you ’ ve ever taken a psychology class,
你可能听过令人震惊的
you ’ ve probably heard the shocking story
凯特·珍诺维斯案件
of Kitty Genovese.
故事是这样的
As the story goes,
1964年的一个晚上
she was murdered one night
38名目击者眼睁睁看着她被杀
in 1964 with 38 witnesses, yet no one helped
却无一人施救 甚至没有及时报警
or even called the police until it was toolate.
这次可怕惊人的事件报道
Reports about this horrible,
引起了后来我们所知的
bizarre event sparked research on what came to be known
旁观者效应的研究
as the bystander effect.
不管你怎么想 这个效应表明
Despite what you ’ d think, it says that, sometimes,
有时 人们在周围有别人时
someone is actually less likely
更不愿意施救
to help if there are others around.
但是即使每门心理学
But even though it ’ s talked about
入门课程都会讨论这个问题
in every intro psych course,
旁观者效应并不像
the bystander effect isn’t
“人越多 越难获助”那么简单
as simple as “more people equals worse oddsof getting help.” Sometimes,
有时人多更好
more is better,
还有很多其他的因素也很重要
and there are other factors that matter, too. Oh,
噢 是什么因素呢
and also?
凯特谋杀案的故事并不是最初版本
That original story of Kitty’s murder isn’tentirely true.
在《纽约时报》发表了凯蒂案之后
After the New York Times published their story about Kitty Genovese,
科学家们试图寻找
scientists set to work
这么多目击者没有反应的原因
trying to figure out why so many witnesseshadn’t responded.
第一个主要研究在
The first major study was published
1968年的《人格与社会心理学》杂志发表
in the Journal of Personality and Social Psychology in 1968.
杂志中 两个研究员在实验室创建了相似的环境
In it, two researchers created a similar situationin the lab.
有72名大学生参与研究
They had 72 undergrads come
但他们认为这是一项针对学生日常生活中
in to what they thought was a study on common
常见问题的研究
problems in students’ lives.
每一个参与者都独自坐在一个房间里
Each participant was seated alone in a room
通过对讲机 可以与一名 两名
with an intercom to share their problems
或五名所谓的“参与者”分享他们的问题
with one, two or five other so-called” participants”
不过那些‘‘参与者”事实上是录音 然后
although they were actually recordings. Then,
其中一个预录“参与者”假装癫痫发作
one of these pre-recorded participants pretended to have a seizure,
然后研究人员记录
and the scientists timed
过多久的时间 这个大学生才会得到帮助
how long it took for the undergrad toget help.
他们发现旁观者越多
They found that the more bystanders there were,
得到帮助的时间
the longer it took
就越长
if they got help at all.
当旁观者只有一人时 85%的参与者会得到帮助
When they were alone, 85% of participantsgot assistance.
但在人数最多的五名旁观者中 只有
But in the largest group of five bystanders,
31%得到了帮助 无可否认
only 31% did. Admittedly,
大多数人都关心那个需要帮助的人
most people were concerned about the sick person,
但是他们不知道
but they didn ’ t know if
他们是否应该做些什么
they should do something.
于是旁观者效应就出现了
And so the bystander effect was born.
从那时开始 多个研究报告证实了这个效应
Since then, multiple studies have confirmed this effect,
但是他们也发现 事情
but they ’ ve also found it isn ’ t
不总是看起来的那么简单
always as straightforward as it seems. Sometimes,
有时候人们更愿意帮助旁观者
people are more likely to help with bystanders,
或者根本不受旁观者的影响
or simply aren ’ t affected by their presence.
其中一个主要的影响其实是旁观者自己
One major influence on this is the bystandersthemselves.
不用惊讶 匆忙的人
Not surprisingly, people who are
通常不会停下去帮助别人
in a hurry are typically less likely to stop and help someone.
而那些擅长处理
And people who are highly skilled
紧急情况的人 比如
in a certain emergency — like nurses
受过紧急医疗事故处理训练的护士
trained to handle medical situations — are also
在不管有没有围观者的情况下
more likely to try to help, whether bystanders
都有很大可能去帮助别人
are there or not.
更有趣的是 做出承诺也很重要
More interestingly, though, making a commitmentalso matters.
在2015年法国的一个研究中
In a 2015 study in France,
一个男人脱下了背包 要么随便问一个人
a man sat down his bag and asked either one specific person
帮忙照看 要么要求所有人帮忙照看
to watch it, everyone in general to watch it,
要么一言不发 之后那个男人走向
or said nothing, then headed to a nearby
附近的ATM
ATM. Then,
在之后调查员们谎称背包被偷
the researchers faked the backpack gettingstolen.
他们反复进行这个试验直到他们召集了
They repeated trials of this until they had a total
总共150个不同的围观者——
of 150 different bystanders — 50
每个案例有50人 最终发现
for each scenario. Ultimately,
越是直接承诺的人
the more direct of a commitment,
当有人偷包时
the more likely people were to intervene when
他们更愿意帮忙
someone took the bag.
其他的研究表明 这样的情况下
Other studies suggest that responses
人们不得不作出的反应与以下几件事有关
in situations like this have to do with a couple of things.
一是因为社会影响
One is social influence.
通常在你不确定发生了什么
In general, when you aren ’ t sure what is going on,
你倾向于观察别人
you probably tend to look at other
获得更多信息
people for more information.
如果没有人关心
And if no one else seems to be concerned,
那么这个人的背包丢失可能也不是大事
then maybe this guy ’ s backpack isn ’ t a
所以你也会无动于衷
big deal — so you don ’ t do anything,
就像别人一样
just like everyone else.
另一个原因是责任扩散
Another factor is diffusion of responsibility.
如果在出事时
If something happens when you ’ re
你在一个大集体当中 像之前背包的例子
in a big group — like some participants in this backpack
帮忙就不是你一个人的事
study — it isn’t up to only you to help.
其他人也可以选择帮忙
Other people could help too. So,
所以你不会觉得责任是必须的
you don ’ t feel as responsible
不会去行动 突然
and don ’ t act, and suddenly that
这个男人的包丢了
man ’ s out of a bag.
除了围观者 另一个主要的原因是具体情况
Besides the bystanders, another major factor in general is the specific situation. Sometimes,
有时候很难辨认别人是否需要帮助
it’s hard to tell if someoneneeds help or not.
很多研究都显示 当事件模棱两可时
And many studies have found that when things are ambiguous,
人们不愿意趟浑水
people are less likely to jump in.
看起来似乎有道理
Which seems reasonable.
毕竟 如果只是别人的把戏
After all, if it turns out someone is just playing around,
如果你做错了
it could be really embarrassing
就会觉得很尴尬
to be wrong.
研究表明 在模糊的事件中
Research suggests that ambiguous situations can
人们会害怕得到负面评价
make people fear being judged negatively,
这可能阻止他们行动
which can stop them from acting.
但是好消息是
The good news is that when it ’ s clear
当出现紧急情况 旁观者效应
that there is an emergency, the bystander effect
通常是不会发生的
doesn’t usually happen.
2011年有一个对超过50篇报告的元分析显示
A 2011 meta-analysis of more than 50 studies also showed
如果处于危险境地
that if the situation is dangerous,
比如犯罪者并未离开
like if the perpetrator is still there,
而且有旁观者在旁 人员更愿意帮忙
people are more likely to help if there are bystanders.
这就说得过去了
And that makes sense.
这些显然都是紧急情况
Those situations are clearly an emergency,
如果别人支持你 你就会很安全
and it ’ s safer if other people have your
最终
back. Ultimately,
虽然这只是一些倾向
although there are some trends,
但很多不同社会心理因素
a lot of different social and psychological factors
决定了人是否会提供帮忙
factors determine whether or not someone willoffer help. Today,
如今 研究表明
research suggests that your best bet
在紧急事件中的最好选择是
in an emergency is to make it clear that you
明确表示你需要帮助
do need assistance,
让人们觉得有责任帮助你
and to make individuals feel responsible for stepping in. Really,
不过
though, it isn ’ t
这种效应并没有那么明确 这一点都不奇怪
that surprising that this effect isn ’ t totally straightforward.
人类并不是完全清晰的 旁观者效应也是
Humans aren’t exactly clear-cut, so thebystander effect isn’t, either.
甚至基蒂·吉诺维斯的故事也不是
Even the original Kitty Genovese story wasn ’ t as black-and-white
像《纽约时报》报道的那样公正
as the New York Times reported.
真相是 38个人没有目击到
****The truth is, 38 people did not witness the
杀人凶手
murder.
当基蒂第一次街上遇袭
When Kitty was first attacked on the street,
很多人只听到断断续续的声音
many may have briefly heard something, but
但只有很少人在黑暗中看出了什么
only a handful of people saw anything happeningin the dark.
甚至发生时 夜晚已经过半
And even then, it was the middle of the night,
这时很难看清外面发生了什么
and it was hard to tell what was going on.
换句话来说 这是模糊不清的
In other words, it was ambiguous.
有一个人通过窗户喊叫吓走了攻击者
One person scared the attacker away by yelling out the window,
然后受伤了的凯蒂
and injured Kitty tried
尝试回到她的公寓
to get to her apartment. Then,
但不幸
unfortunately,
因为是在公寓入口 所以人们看不到或
in the building ’ s entrance where people couldn ’ t see or
听不到她是否没事 凶手又返回来
hear her very well,the attacker came back.
警方被通知赶来 但那时
Police were called but didn ’ t arrive
她已经死亡
until it was too late to save her.
直到两周后新闻才被报道
The newspaper article wasn ’ t published until two weeks
所以时间模糊了细节
after the event, so there was time for details to get a little fuzzy. Thankfully,
幸好 我们研究员在研究这个现象
we have researchers studying this phenomenon to make sure
这样就确保
that ’ s less likely
不会再出现这样的事件
to happen again.
感谢观看《心理科学秀》
Thanks for watching this episode of SciShowPsych!
如果你想深入了解
If you ’ d like to dig deeper
一些也许你在《心理学101》中学过的主题
into some of the topics you might ’ ve covered in Psych 101,
推荐你观看“马斯洛的需求层次”
you can watch our episode about Maslow’sHierarchy of Needs.
事实证明结果并不像你所想象的那么有帮助
Turns out, that’s not as helpful as you’dthink, either.
[片尾曲]
[♪ OUTRO ]

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旁观者效应并不像我们所想的那么简单,让我们一起来看看吧

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