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糖醇是糖,还是酒精 – 译学馆
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糖醇是糖,还是酒精

Is Sugar Alcohol as Awesome as It Sounds?

如果你为所有你想吃的东西列一张清单
If you made a list of all the substances that you most like to ingest,
哪些会在上面呢?
what would be on it?
糖会在清单上吗?
Would sugar be on that list?
当然它会的
Of course it would.
因为糖很美味
Because sugar’s delicious.
那酒呢?
And how about alcohol?
如果你已经到了能喝酒的年龄 酒也很好
If you’re old enough to drink it, alcohol can be pretty OK,
尽管它能很快让你“放飞自我”
although it can turn on you pretty quickly.
但如果你稍后查看营养成分表 你可能会注意到
But if you’ve looked at a nutrition label lately, you’ve probably noticed that there’s
多数食物的成分中似乎都包含了这两种东西 糖和酒精
an ingredient showing up in a lot of foods that seem to combine these two: sugar alcohol.
对许多被加工过的食物而言 它们是很常见的成分
It’s a common ingredient in many processed foods.
它们被当做一种低热量的甜味剂广泛应用于从软饮到鸡尾酒的各种饮料中
It’s used as a low-calorie sweetener in everything from soft drinks to snack bars,
并且有许多不同种类 像赤藻糖醇 木糖醇和山梨糖醇
and there are lots of different kinds, like erythritol, xylitol, or sorbitol.
但 它是什么物质呢?
But, what is it?
它是糖?
Is it sugar?
或是酒精?
Or is it alcohol?
还是酒中的糖?
Is it the sugar that’s in alcohol?
如果我在营养成分表中看到它 这意味着
And if I see it on a nutrition label, does that mean
在我的蛋白棒和可乐中也有酒吗?
that there’s booze in my protein bar or diet cola?
并非如此
No!
糖醇实际上是糖
Sugar alcohol actually starts out as sugar,
发酵转变而成的一种酒精
but then it’s fermented to create a kind of alcohol.
但它不是你可能会想到的那种
But not the kind that you’re probably thinking of.
不论何时当你听到人们在谈论酒精时 绝大部分时间
Whenever you hear people talking about “alcohol”, like 99.99 percent of the time, what they’re
人们说的是乙醇 它也被称为酒精
talking about is ethanol, also known as ethyl alcohol.
但乙醇只是酒精的一种
But ethanol is just one of many kinds of alcohol.
科学地说 酒精是一种化合物 其含有的
Technically speaking, an alcohol is any compound that contains a hydrogen-oxygen pair,
被称为羟基群的氢氧基 能与足够多的碳原子结合
known as a hydroxyl group, that’s bound to an atom of carbon that’s saturated, meaning
这意味着它所有的电子都被其他东西束缚
all of its electrons are bound to something else.
这就是它
And that’s it!
它涉及了各种各样的化学混合物
That describes all kinds of chemical compounds,
大部分你都不想吸收进体内
most of which you’d never want to put in your body.
像乙二醇 防冻剂中的成分
Like ethylene glycol, the stuff that’s in antifreeze?
这是一种酒精
That’s an alcohol.
又比如2-丙醇 又叫异丙基或外用酒精
And so is 2-propanol, aka isopropyl or rubbing alcohol.
这些物质不会使人中毒 它们有毒性通常是因为
Substances like these aren’t intoxicating, they’re just poisonous, usually because
你的身体将它们转化为一些危险可怕的化合物
your body metabolizes them into some horrible, dangerous compound
像甲酸或草酸
like formic acid or oxalic acid.
你应该怎样摄入糖并将其转化成对你身体无害的酒精呢?
So how do you take sugar and turn it into an alcohol, one that won’t kill you?
大多数糖醇 举个例子 像赤藓糖醇 是由谷物制成的
Well, most sugar alcohol, like erythritol, for example, is made from corn.
这些谷物先被煮沸 再捣碎 而后被分解成还原糖 葡萄糖
The corn is boiled, mashed and broken down into its basic sugar, glucose.
最后它们被一群真菌所摄取
Then, it’s fed to a bunch of fungus.
准确的说 是“发酵”
Yeasts, to be precise.
因为 糖醇是发酵的产物 正如啤酒或葡萄酒中的酒精一样
Because, sugar alcohol is the product of fermentation, just like the alcohol in beer or wine.
为了得到特定的糖醇 厂家会用特定种类的酵母 将葡萄糖
To make sugar alcohols specifically, companies use certain kinds of yeast that turn glucose
转化成一类有甜味并且无毒的酒精
into sweet, non-toxic alcohols.
这些酵母摄入葡萄糖 将那些复杂的糖分子分解成
These yeasts eat away at the glucose, breaking down those big, clunky sugar molecules into
更小更简单的分子
smaller, simpler molecules.
剩下的是饱和的 每个只带有四个碳原子
And what’s left are molecules with four carbons, each of which is saturated,
和一个羟基的分子
and attached to a hydroxyl group.
你的身体吸收的就是它们
And there you have it.

Sugar.

Alcohol.
它不带有乙醇的致毒性 值得高兴的是 它也
It doesn’t have the intoxicating effects of ethanol, and thankfully it also doesn’t
不含有其他能杀死你的醇类 因为你的身体无法将其分解
have the killing-you effects of other alcohols, because your body doesn’t break it down
成任何致命的物质
into anything deadly.
但它却带有甜味 因为如葡萄糖一样
But it does taste sweet, because like glucose,
它会与你舌头上有关于甜味的受体反应
it bonds with the sweetness receptors on your tongue.
同时 它的卡路里含量比葡萄糖分子更少
And at the same time, it contains fewer calories than a molecule of glucose.
因为大部分的糖醇只是经过你的身体
Now that’s because most sugar alcohols pass through your body
并不会全部都会被代谢
without being metabolized all the way.
甚至有些种类 在体内完全不会被分解
In some cases, they’re not broken down at all.
例如 赤藓糖醇 会直接被你的小肠完整地吸收
Erythritol, for example, is absorbed as a whole molecule right there in your small intestine.
它不会被分解 因此它所含有的能量不会被释放
It’s never broken apart, so the energy in its bonds is never released.
这就相当于 它不含卡路里
Which means it contains zero calories!
糖醇的确有它们的缺点
Sugar alcohols do have their downsides, though.
赤藓糖醇大部分是经尿液排出 你只需排出它
Erythritol is excreted mostly through your urine, you just pee it out.
但其他种类的糖醇 一路畅通地通过你的肠腔
But other kinds of sugar alcohols make it all the way through your intestines without
而没有被完全吸收 并最终形成其他种类的废物
being completely absorbed, and have to come out as the other kind of waste.
这就是为什么包含了山梨醇和甘露醇一类的酒精的食品会在标签上提醒消费者
Which is why foods that contain alcohols like sorbitol and mannitol warn you on their labels
它们可能会“使人腹泻”的原因
that they may create a “laxative effect.”
或许 我不确定 可能会更糟糕 这只我的猜测?
Which, I dunno, could be worse, I guess?
所以也许你可以在吃蛋糕的同时吃点它
So maybe you can have your cake and eat it too.
它可能仅仅会使你有些腹泻
It just might give you a little diarrhea.
感谢观看本期科学秀
Thanks for watching this episode of SciShow,
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糖醇是糖,还是酒精,又或者是酒精中的糖?答案就在这里

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