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俄罗斯属于亚洲还是欧洲

Is Russia In Europe Or Asia?

这就是俄罗斯 疆域广阔
This is Russia, it’s big.
它的国境线往西接壤芬兰 往东超过日本
It borders Finland to the West and stretches further East than Japan.
而芬兰位于欧洲 日本则位于亚洲
Finland is in Europe and Japan is in Asia.
所以就地理位置而言
But where does Russia stand.
俄罗斯是属于欧洲呢?还是亚洲?
Is it European or Asian?
欧洲和亚洲的分界线是乌拉尔山脉
The divide between Europe and Asia is the Ural mountains.
所以简单说来 俄罗斯既属于欧洲又属于亚洲
So if you want a quick answer, Russia is in both.
但真正的答案却复杂得多
But the real answer is more complicated.
接下来我们看看各方观点
I’ll take at look at all sides of this argument
然后请你做个是非公断
and let you decide what you will.
俄罗斯疆域广阔 西接波兰 东临朝鲜
Russia is an enormous country stretching from Poland to North Korea.
跨越11个时区
Passing through 11 time zones.
亚洲欧洲的侵略及贸易都影响到了俄罗斯
Influenced by Asian and European invasions, trade,
侵略 外交 再侵略……
invasions, diplomacy, and invasions.
所以俄罗斯是如何成为俄罗斯的呢?
So how did Russia become Russia?
东斯拉夫人于3~8世纪在欧洲兴起
Eastern Slavs arose in Europe between the 3rd-8th centuries.
这些彪悍的维京战士于9世纪建立基辅罗斯
A bad ass Varangian warrior founded the Kievan Rus state in the 9th century.
然后和拜占庭帝国建交
And they got chummy with The Byzantines,
拜占庭帝国就表示“快快接受我们炫酷的东正教”
who were like “here have this cool Orthodox Christianity” .
之后蒙古人到此大展身手
The Mongols arrived and did what Mongols do.
基辅罗斯因此成为蒙古帝国的领土
The Rus became part of the Mongol Empire.
同时莫斯科大公国开始统一俄罗斯其它王公的领地
The Grand Duchy of Moscow started unifying the other Russian entities.
在伊凡大帝的带领下 莫斯科大公国打败蒙古人
And Under Ivan the Great they defeated the Mongols
使俄罗斯中西部逐渐相融
and merged Central and Western Russia.
这个新的俄罗斯夺取了大量蒙古帝国的领土
The new Russian state began to expand into the territory once ruled by its conquerors.
之后“恐怖伊凡”开始率军兼并周边汗国
Under Ivan the Terrible Russia began annexing nearby Khanates.
征服了西伯利亚大部分地区
Russia conquered territory deep into Siberia.
伊凡大帝成为俄罗斯第一任沙皇
Ivan became the first Tsar of all the Russians,
一统这个多民族 横贯欧亚大陆的帝国
And ruled a multi ethnic, transcontinental Empire.
然后我们快进到彼得大帝时期
Skipping very far forward we arrive at Peter the Great.
在彼得大帝手中 俄罗斯又征服了波罗的海的部分地区
Under his rule Russia conquered parts of the Baltic.
然后他在那里建立了圣彼得堡
Where he founded Saint Petersburg,
——俄罗斯的“欧洲之窗”
Russia’s “Window to Europe”.
彼得大帝实施了改革
Peter the Great’s reforms brought Western
他将西欧的文化理念引入俄罗斯
European cultural ideals to Russia.
他的现代化之路和日本的“明治维新”很像
He embarked on a modernisation campaign similar to the Japanese Meiji restoration.
彼得大帝要求贵族们穿欧洲服装 征收胡须税
Peter forced his nobles to wear European clothing, instituted a beard tax,
采用“儒略历”
and adopted the Julian calendar.
他还自封为俄罗斯皇帝
He also declared himself Emperor of Russia.
但是还有一个未被彼得大帝欧化的对象:地理
However there was one thing that Peter couldn’t Westernise, geography.
希腊人说 在欧洲人的地理认知中
According to Greeks, who Europeans based their geography on,
俄罗斯是亚洲的
Russia was in Asia.
因此 就算是欧洲边境上的俄罗斯也是亚洲的
And thus Russia was still a spooky Asian entity on the borders of Europe.
然后菲利普·约翰·冯·史托兰伯于1730年代
Then Philip Johan von Strahlenberg came along in the 1730s
改变了欧洲的定义:
and change the definition of Europe.
乌拉尔山脉以东都属于亚洲
Asia was now everything east of the Ural mountains.
彼得大帝的侄女安娜拥护他的主张
Anna of Russia, Peter’s niece, obviously embraced this
并出资发行他的地图
and financed the distribution of Strahlenberg’s maps.
于是俄罗斯就成了一个有欧洲领土的亚洲帝国
And Russia became less of a spooky Asian Empire with lands in Europe
而非有亚洲领土的欧洲帝国
more a Europeanish Empire with lands in Asia.
这就是改名换姓啊
It was all a matter of re-branding.
但欧洲人和俄罗斯人还是不能完全肯定
But Europeans and Russians could still not decide 100%
俄罗斯到底是欧洲国家 还是亚洲国家
whether Russia was a fully fledged European state, or an Asian one.
俄罗斯75%的领土在乌拉尔山脉以东
75% of Russia is east of the Ural mountains
这在地理位置上坚定了俄罗斯的亚洲性
firmly placing it inside Asia geographically.
在人口统计上
Demographically
你也可以看到亚洲人对俄罗斯的影响
you can see the Asian influence in Russia too.
亚洲宗教也影响了俄罗斯
As well as Asian religious influences,
尤其是伊斯兰教
particularly with Islam.
还有佛教 印度教 萨满教
As well as Buddhism, Hinduism, and
对西伯利亚部分地区的影响
Shamanism in parts of Siberia.
俄罗斯是多民族国家
Russia is multi ethnic and
许多俄罗斯人兼有欧亚血统
has many people with both European and Asian heritage.
俄罗斯现有160多个民族
Over 160 ethnic groups live in Russia.
俄罗斯不是欧盟的成员国 也不打算加入
Russia is not a member of the EU nor does it plan to become a member.
也不是北约的成员
It not a member of not NATO either.
相反 俄国政府对上海合作组织青眼有加
The Russian government has instead focused on the Shanghai Cooperation Organization (SCO),
该组织的活动范围包括安全 军事 政治等领域
a security, military and political organisation whose
成员国有俄罗斯 中国 哈萨克斯坦
members are Russia, China, Kazakhstan,
吉尔吉斯斯坦 塔吉克斯坦 乌兹别克斯坦
Kyrgyzstan, Tajikistan and Uzbekistan.
这些成员国都被认为是亚洲国家
All of which would be considered Asian countries.
在中国聚居的俄罗斯人被认定为俄罗斯族
Russians themselves are even a recognised minority in People’s Republic of China.
75%的俄罗斯领土在亚洲
While 75% of Russia is in Asia,
77%的俄罗斯人口在欧洲
77% of it’s people aren’t.
俄罗斯西部更具欧洲文化特色
The Western part of Russia is more European culturally.
那里的人说欧洲语言 城市也偏向于欧洲风格
The people speak European languages, and the cities look more European.
俄罗斯旧都圣彼得堡的外观很像威尼斯
The old Russian capital of Saints Petersburg was designed to look like Venice.
昔日俄国的沙皇统治者们在宫廷说法语
Russia’s old rulers the Tsars spoke French at court
和其它欧洲君主关系很好
and were related to other European monarchs.
即使很多人没有意识到
And even if many people don’t realise it European
俄国人对欧洲文化有不小的正面贡献
culture would worse off without Russian contributions.
在欧洲的一流图书馆
It’s next to impossible to go through the classical
基本上不可能找不到陀思妥耶夫斯基
libraries of Europe without finding a book
和托尔斯泰的书
written by Dostoevsky or Tolstoy.
没有柴可夫斯基的古典音乐是不完整的
And classical music would be left wanting without Tchaikovsky.
而且俄罗斯歌手还参加欧洲电视网歌唱大赛
And most importantly their singers compete in the Eurovision.
可以说现代俄罗斯是帝国时代的产物
You could argue that modern Russia is a result of the Age of Empires.
就像英国和法国一样
Like the British or French.
英法殖民地曾分散在全世界
Who also held transcontinental territories in the past.
但和欧洲帝国不同的是
But unlike the European empires the Russian Empire
俄帝国的土地几乎是连成一片的
was a mostly contiguous land empire.
所以统治起来很容易
Which made it much easier to maintain.
俄罗斯在文化和地域方面不协调的主因之一是
One of the main reasons for this cultural and continental confusion is that Russia is
俄罗斯居民多数是欧洲民族
populated with a majority European ethnic group.
然后亚洲帝国侵略俄罗斯
Was invaded by an Asian Empire.
征服了这片土地
Which it then conquered the lands of.
所以现在的俄罗斯由欧洲人和亚洲人共同组成
And is now made up of elements of both.
想象一下 如果马其顿王国延续至今
Imagine if Alexander the Great’s empire survived to this day.
那它是属于欧洲 还是亚洲?
Would it be European or Asian?
俄罗斯即是欧洲的 又是亚洲的
Russia is both European and Asian,
但欧洲不等于亚洲 亚洲也不等于欧洲
European and not Asian, Asian and not European,
所以俄罗斯既不是亚洲的 也不是欧洲的
and neither Asian nor European.
俄罗斯兼属于两洲的解释很模糊 似是而非
It straddles the definition of both while also being totally different.
这都是我们对大陆的混乱定义造成的
This is all caused by our messy definition of continents.
世界上有几大陆?
How many continents are there?
有人说7 有人说6 有人说5
Some people would say 7, others 6, some others 5.
答案不固定 完全取决于你自圆其说
There is no certain answer and it solely depends on your definition.
不能单独称欧洲为欧洲大陆
Europe isn’t a continent.
欧洲和亚洲应该合称为超级大陆——欧亚大陆
Europe and Asia should instead be treated as one mega-continent called Eurasia.
因为欧洲和亚洲之间没有真正的地理分界
This is because there is no real border between Europe and Asia.
从构造上看 欧洲和亚洲根本就是一块大陆
Tectonically, Europe and Asia are the same continent.
选择乌拉尔山脉作为欧亚分界线是主观的
The choice of the Ural Mountains as a divide was arbitrary.
欧洲充其量就是个和印度一样的次大陆
At best Europe should be a subcontinent, like India.
假如我们以文化差异划分欧洲大陆和亚洲大陆
By dividing Europe from Asia we are making a continent based on cultural differences.
如果我们按文化划分大陆 那得划分出多少大陆啊?
If we did that for every culture how many continents would end up with?
20?40?100?
20? 40? 100?
所以如果你想使用严格的地理定义
So if you want to use a strict geographical definition,
那俄罗斯就是欧亚国家
Russia would be a Eurasian country.
这实际上很好地概括了俄罗斯:
Which actually sums up Russia very well,
欧洲和亚洲的混合体
a mix of both Europe and Asia.
这就把所有的因素都兼顾了
Even with all these factors.
有些俄国人住得靠近欧洲 有些靠近亚洲
Some placing Russian nearer to Europe, others nearer to Asia.
如果你问一个俄罗斯人是亚洲人还是欧洲人
If you asked a Russian whether they were Asian or European,
他们可能告诉你 我是俄罗斯人
they would probably tell you that they were Russian.

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视频概述

本视频为你介绍横跨两大洲的俄罗斯。

听录译者

收集自网络

翻译译者

ccz

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译学馆审核团D

视频来源

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=mj6U7inQ0lA

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