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1美元就可以退休吗? – 译学馆
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1美元就可以退休吗?

Is Retirement Even POSSIBLE?

我们想向谷歌的应用“科学日志”
We want to thank Google’s Science Journal App
对美国公共广播公司数字工作室的支持表示感谢
for supporting PBS Digital Studios.
想象一下你拥有一台时光机
Imagine you had a time machine and with the press
并且当你按下一个按钮后
of a button you could transport yourself
你就能穿越到你75岁生日那天
to your own 75th birthday.
假设你仍然健在
Assuming you’re still around,
你希望你自己那个时候在做什么呢?
what do you hope to find yourself doing?
写你的回忆录?
Writing your memoirs?
环游世界?
Sailing around the world?
在圣松佩罗聚会?
Partying in San Junipero?
我们很少有人会回答
Very few of us would answer
“在快餐连锁店洗厕所”
“cleaning toilets at a fast-food joint”
或是“在大街上乞讨零钱”
or “begging for change on the street.”
没有人希望他们的人生这样结束
No one wants their story to end that way,
但令人震惊的是 我们很少有人
yet shockingly few of us
采取最基本的措施来避免这个结局
are taking the basic steps to avoid it.
事实很简单 如果我们有幸活得够久
The simple fact is that if we’re lucky to live long enough,
总有一天我们会失去
one day we will lose our desire or physical ability
继续赚钱的欲望
to keep earning a paycheck.
我们年纪越大
The older we get,
就越难保持严谨的工作状态
the harder it becomes to maintain a rigid work schedule.
而随着现代医学让我们寿命越来越长
And as modern medicine allows us to live longer and longer,
使得我们预期的退休生活
the time we expect to spend in
可能很容易超过30年
retirement might easily pass 30 years.
花一点时间想想这个吧
Think of that for a second.
如果30年没有收入
30 years without income.
你会紧张吗?
Nervous yet?
很好
Good.
所以你需要有多少钱
So how much would you need
才能让你在这些年里不那么落魄
to not spend those years in abject poverty?
那取决于你的个人需要
Well, that depends on your personal needs,
生活标准 以及健康问题等等
standard of living, health issues, etc.,
但是作为一个起点
but as a starting point,
美国退休人员协会建议
the AARP recommends that to replace
将30年内每年四万美元收入
a $40,000 per year income for 30 years,
调整为 你可能需要
you’ll need to start your retirement with –
先做个深呼吸
take a deep breath –
118万美元才能退休
$1.18 million.
如果这个数字让你感到头晕
If that number makes you feel a little dizzy,
那么 你并不是一个人
Well, you’re not alone.
在我们的调查中
In one survey,
55岁到64岁之间的美国人的
Americans between 55 and 64 reported
平均退休积蓄是120000美元
a median retirement savings of $120,000
而这只是美国退休人员协会建议的10%
only 10% of the amount advised by the AARP!
另一个调查发现 40岁以上的美国人中
Another survey found that 75 % of Americans
有75%不支持为了退休而存钱
over 40 are behind saving for retirement and
并且有28%的超过55岁的美国人是完全没有退休储蓄的
28% over 55 have no retirement savings at all!
有很多因素会导致这个问题
There are many factors that contributed to this problem.
其中一个原因是 工资涨幅在七八十年代下降了
For one thing, wage growth declined in the 70s and 80s.
虽然其在九十年代有所回升
It picked back up in the 90s,
但是接下来房地产市场的繁荣
but then the housing boom convinced a lot of Americans
让许多美国人选择负债买一幢价格过高的房子
to go into debt to buy overpriced homes,
好吧 而我们知道这样做的结局如何
and, well, we know how that turned out.
我们也看到为炫耀物质财富
We’ve also seen an increase in cultural pressure
而导致日益增加的文化压力
to show visual displays of wealth.
在《经济学季刊》上发表的一个研究显示
A study published in the Quarterly Journal of Economics suggests
美国人会特别担心
that Americans are uniquely concerned
自己看起来比别人穷
about seeming poor to others,
所以他们会花过多的钱在
so they spend a disproportionate amount on things
鞋 衣服和车之类的东西上
like shoes, clothes and cars.
这对名牌和广告商来说是很好的商机
It’s been great business for designer labels and advertisers —
但对我们攒钱就不是好事了
not so much for our savings accounts.
最后
Lastly,
政府政策的变化让存钱变得更难
changes in government policies have made it easier to not save money.
在过去
In the past,
职员会自动加入“固定福利计划”
employees were automatically enrolled in “defined benefit plans”,
为覆盖退休开支而预存资金
pre-set funding amounts to match their retirement needs.
而现在的员工却不得不选择401(k)这样的退休计划
Today’s workers have to “opt in” to retirement plans like 401(k)s,
并且搞清楚为自己留了多少钱
and figure out for themselves how much to set aside.
此外 这些计划经常是有漏洞的
Furthermore, these plans are often leaky,
它意味着你可以提前挪用基金
meaning you’re allowed to remove funds prematurely,
而这使得你很容易花掉自己的退休基金
which makes it easy to steal from your own retirement.
这一切都意味着为退休存钱无望
Does all this mean that saving for retirement is hopeless
你应该花光闲钱只为租赁一辆跑车吗?
and you should just blow your extra dough leasing a sports car?
不!
No!
在较少的收入下存下一大笔钱
It’s still very possible to save up large amounts
还是很有可能的
of money on a modest income.
三个特别的因素分别是 好市场 复利和时间
The three special ingredients are Good Markets, Compound Interest, and Time.
为了向你展示这三种因素的综合作用
To show you how these elements work together,
是时候进行计算了!
it’s time to Run The Numbers!
贝蒂今年30岁 年入5万美元
Betty is 30 years old and makes $50,000/yr.
她还没有为退休存过一角钱
She hasn’t saved a dime for retirement yet,
但是今年她决定开始存钱了
but this year she’s decided to start.
在她想要储蓄的个人退休账户
Between the amount she is going to save into her Roth IRA,
401k个人缴纳和企业缴纳部分之中
her 401(k) at work, and her 401(k) match,
她每月存625美元 或者每年存7500美元
she’s putting away $625 a month, or $7,500 a year,
这占她收入的15% 这一储蓄比例备受专家推荐
That’s 15% of her income–which many experts recommend as agood savings target.
按这个比率 到她65岁的时候
At this rate, by the time she’s 65,
贝蒂的个人退休账户里
Betty will have personally deposited $262,500
会有262500美元
into her retirement account.
真令人吃惊
Impressive,
但离她退休所需的百万美元还很遥远
but still a long way from the million dollars plus she’ll need to retire.
但是现在我们要添加特别的要素
But now we add our special ingredients!
在过去的90年间
Over the last 90 years,
股票市场每年增长9.8%
the stock market has grown an average of 9.8% per year.
但让我们来假设比这个利率小一点点……比如7.5%
But let’s assume a little less than that, say, 7.5 %
如果贝蒂能做出像样的投资组合
If Betty can put together a decent portfolio,
她就能期望她的储蓄以平均每年7.5%的速度增长
she can expect her savings to grow by an average of 7.5 % per year.
只要贝蒂不动用账户资金
And as long as Betty doesn’t touch that account,
那么她赚到的分红和利息
the dividends and interest she earns
就能生出更多的分红和利息!
will generate even more dividends and interest!
并且过一段时间后
And over time, her savings doesn’t just increase
她的存款将不仅是直线增长……
in a straight line,
而是呈指数增长!
They grow exponentially!
等到她65岁的时候
Now, by the time she’s 65,
她原来262500美元的钱将会
that $262,500 of her original money
爆炸增长到一百二十万美元以上
has ballooned to over 1.2 million dollars
做的很棒 贝蒂!
Nice job Betty!
关于这个行动方案 有一些事情必须记住
A couple things to keep in mind with this scenario.
由于通货膨胀 未来商品和服务的价格很可能会上涨
It’s very likely that goods and services will cost more in the future due to inflation.
但是也很有可能
However, it’s also very likely
像贝蒂一样30岁的人能预见到她的工资
that a 30 year old like Betty will see her salary increase
将随着她们经验技能的积累而增长
as she gains more experience and skill.
如果她坚持存入工资的15%
If she sticks to that same 15 % of her salary,
她就能积攒更多的退休金
she can expect to have even more set aside for retirement.
但如果你在30岁以后才开始储蓄呢?
What if you’re older than Betty and getting a late start?
那你存入工资的比例就得高于15%
Well, that may mean that you need to set aside more
比如20%或25%
of your paycheck, say 20 or 25 percent.
或者你可以等到直到你70岁再退休
Or you may have to wait until your 70’s to retire.
这比选择什么都不做
Either of these options is better than doing nothing
或者寄希望于中彩票要好
or counting on winning the lottery.
也有很多其他因素会改变你现在的情况
There are many other factors that can change your specific situation. Inheritances,
遗产继承 社保 退休金 医疗条件
social security, pensions, medicalconditions.
如果你不确定从哪里开始
If you’re not sure where to begin,
你可以向理财师寻求帮助
you can seek out the help of a financial planner who
让他当你的理财受托人
is a sworn fiduciary.
他们可以为你制定一个满足你需要的计划
They can outline a plan that fits your needs
并告诉你如何为退休做准备
and show you that preparing for retirement
并不是像你想的那么困难的事情
is not as intimidating as you may think.
你的黄金岁月 不一定是挤不出时间
You don’t have to be into shuffleboard or bird-watching
而只能去玩沙狐球或观鸟
to expect a little time off in your golden years.
而有些人希望工作越久越好
And some people want to work as long as they can.
但每个人都想要有替自己做决定的能力
But everyone wants the power to decide that for themselves,
尤其是在他们辛苦工作了一辈子以后
especially after a lifetime of hard work.
当然 如果你真的能够得到时光机
Of course, if you do manage to get access to a time machine,
你可以一直穿越回“体育年鉴退休计划”时代
you can always fall back on the old “Sports Almanac Retirement Plan.”
以上就是这期视频的全部内容
And that’s our two cents!
感谢谷歌对美国广播公司数字工作室的支持
Thanks to Google for supporting PBS Digital Studios.
他们的应用软件“科学日志”
Their mobile app,Science Journal,
让你使用你的手机 掌上电脑或网络笔记本
lets you take notes and measure scientific phenomena
记录并衡量科学的现象
such as light, sound, and motion,
比如光 声音和运动
using your phone, tablet or Chromebook.
你可以在他们的网站上
You can find activity ideas and additional information
找到活动创意和其他信息
on their website at g.co/sciencejournal

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视频概述

为退休而需要准备的退休金是惊人的,但只要我们早早开始储蓄,我们会拥有一笔相当可观的退休储蓄。

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翻译译者

寞。

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视频来源

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=KA66Wcp1QEc

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