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现实真实存在吗? 神经科学家提出质疑

Is reality real? These neuroscientists don’t think so | Big Think

Is there external reality?
外部世界是否真实存在?
Of course there’s an external reality.
外部现实当然存在
The world exists.
世界真实存在
It’s just that we don’t see it as it is.
我们眼中的世界却未必真实
We can never see it as it is.
我们永远无法看到真实的世界
In fact it’s even useful to not see it as it is.
事实上 这样反而是件好事
And the reason is because we have no direct access
这是因为 我们只能够间接地
to that physical world other than through our senses.
通过感官来认识世界
And because our senses conflate multiple aspects of that world,
世界的方方面面在我们的感官中杂糅混合
we can never know whether our perceptions are in any way accurate.
导致我们无法确定 自己的感知何为实 何为虚
It’s not so much do we see the world in the way that it really is,
我们对外部世界的感知和认识 不等于世界本身
but do we actually even see it accurately?
那么我们的认识谈得上准确吗
And the answer is no, we don’t.
答案是否定的
However paradoxical it sounds,
虽然这听起来很矛盾
if we think of what is visible as just what projects to the eyes,
当我们看见某样事物 大脑接受投射到眼中的影像时
we see much more than is visible.
我们获得的要比眼前看到的更多
Let me give you an example.
让我举个例子
I walk into a room and there’s graffiti on the wall
假设我走进一间屋子 看见墙上画着涂鸦
and imagine it’s graffiti that I find really offensive.
涂鸦写着冒犯我的内容
I look at it, I flush, my heart starts to race,
我看着它 心跳加速 气血上涌
I’m outraged, I’m taken aback.
我会被激怒 被震惊
Of course, if I didn’t know the language in which it was written,
然而 如果我根本看不懂涂鸦上写的
I could have had exactly the same retinal events
我的视网膜虽然接受着同样的视觉信息
and the same events in my early visual system,
视觉神经系统照常工作
without any corresponding reaction.
我却没了愤怒的反应
Much more shows up for us than just what projects into our nervous system.
我们所感受到的 要多于神经系统接受到的信息
现实世界客观吗?
Our senses are also making up the tastes,
感官也造就了我们所体验的
odors and colors that we experience.
各种味道 气味和色彩
They’re not properties of an objective reality.
它们并不是客观现实事物的特性
They’re actually properties of our senses
反而是感官的特性
that they’re fabricating.
是感官塑造的体验
By objective reality I mean,
我说的客观现实
what most physicists would mean,
和大多数物理学家口中的一样
and that is that something is objective real
指客观真实的事物
if it would continue to exist,
这类事物不会因为
even if there were no creatures to perceive it.
没有感受者而消失 是客观存在的
Colors, odors, tastes and so on are not real
色彩 气味和味道等等 在这个定义中
in that sense of objective reality.
不属于客观现实
They are real in a different sense.
在其他意义上 它们确实真实
They’re real experiences.
它们是真实的体验
Your headache is a real experience,
你的头疼也是真实的体验
even though it could not exist without you perceiving it.
虽然如果没有你的感受 头疼也就不复存在
So it exists in a different way
也就是说 “感受”的存在方式
than the objective reality that physicists talk about.
不同于物理学家口中的客观现实
We always assume that our senses are telling us the truth.
我们总是认为 感受即事实
So it was quite a stunning shock to me when I realized
所以当我意识到 所有的味道 气味和色彩
that it’s not just tastes odors and colors,
都不过是感官的造物
that are the fabrications of our senses
这些都不是客观真实的时
and are not objectively real.
我备受震惊
Space-time itself, and everything within space-time.
时空本身 以及时空中的一切
Objects, electrons, quarks, the sun, the moon,
事物 电子 夸克 太阳 月亮
their shapes, their masses, their velocities,
它们的形状 质量 速度
all of these physical properties are also constructions.
这些物理特性构成了事物
Sometimes it’s really difficult for people to understand
有时候 真的很难和人们解释清楚
that the data that your brain is receiving is meaningless
为什么大脑接受的这些数据毫无意义
because when they open their eyes, they look around,
因为人们环顾四周时
they say, “Well, I see everything. What do you mean it’s meaningless?”
总会疑问 “有这么多东西 怎么会毫无意义呢?”
A really simple example is color.
色彩就是个简单易懂的例子
Scientific knowledge of what light is shows us
针对光的科学研究发现
that our natural perception leaves a lot on the table.
我们的天然感官并未做到高度精确
The human perception of color is limited really by the principles of quantum mechanics.
人类对色彩的认知是受限于量子力学原则的
It’s interesting to compare the human perception of color,
对比人类的色彩感知和声音感知能力
to the perception of sound.
能发现有趣的事
When you have two pure tones together,
将两个纯音一起奏响
like a C and a G a simple chord, that’s a fifth.
比如1和5 构成一个简单的和弦 5度
If you hear that, you can hear the separate tones,
你可以分别听到这两个音符
even though they’re played together and you hear a chord,
虽然两个音符一起响起 你能听到和弦
you can also sense the separate tones.
但你也同时分别听到了两个音符
Whereas with colors, if you have two different colors,
然而在色彩方面 假设有两个颜色
say spectral green and spectral red and mix them.
比如光谱中的绿色和红色 将它们混合
What you see is not a chord where you can see the distinct identities preserved,
得到的并不是各自特性仍得以保留的“和弦”
but rather an intermediate color.
而是产生了位于中间的颜色
In fact, you’ll see something that looks like yellow.
也就是光谱中的黄色
It’s as if in music,
类比到音乐中
when you play to the C and a G together,
就是当你同时弹奏1和5
instead of hearing a chord,
听到的不是和弦
you just heard the note E the intermediate note.
而是位于中间的3
So at this most basic level,
所以 可以说 在这种最基础的层面上
we don’t represent even the information we’re getting
我们的感官甚至都没能准确地呈现
in any accurate way.
所获得的信息
And the reason is because it was useful to see it this way.
原因在于 这其实有利于我们生存
So what are you seeing the utility of the data not the data.
我们看见的是数据的实用性 而非数据本身
Evolution by natural selection has shaped us
自然选择 生物进化 我们由此被塑造
with perceptions that are designed to keep us alive.
我们的感官是为了生存而存在
So if I see a snake, don’t pick it up.
告诫我们 看到蛇不要随便捡
If I see a cliff, don’t jump off.
看到悬崖不要随便跳
If I see a train don’t step in front of it,
火车过来时不要胡乱挡在前头
we have to take our perceptions seriously,
我们要认真对待感官传递的讯息
but that does not entitle us to take them literally.
但却不能只看到单纯的感官信息
Perception itself.
感知本身
A perspective on something defined by perception
根据感知所得出的看法
is inherently a reduction of the information of the thing.
蕴含的信息 本质上要少于客观事物本身
My perspective of it is gonna be
我对于客观事物的认识
a lot less total information than the actual thing is.
包含的信息远少于事物本身
I can look at the object from the east side
我可以从各个角度观测事物
or the west side or the top or the north side
从东西南北看 从上俯瞰
or the inside, microscopically, telescopically,
从内向外看 或是用显微镜或望远镜看
they’ll all give me different information.
都能告诉我不同的信息
None will give me the entirety of the information about the situation.
但没有一个方式获得的信息 可以展示全景
So there is no all encompassing perspective
所以不存在什么“全面的认识”
that gives me all of the information about almost any situation.
任何情况下都不存在包含所有信息的认知
What this means is that reality itself is trans-perspectivial.
这意味着 现实本身是超越视角主义的
It can’t be captured in any perspective.
现实无法被任何视角所囊括
So multiple perspectives have to be taken.
因此必须从多元视角出发 寻找真理
All of which will have some part of the reality, some signal.
每个视角都展现了部分现实部分信号
There may also be distortion.
都有些许失真
I may be looking at the thing through a fish eye lens
我可能或是透过鱼眼镜头
or through a colored lens that creates some distortion.
或是透过彩色镜头 看着失真的世界
Why does this matter?
这又有什么关系呢?
The ability to take multiple perspectives, to see the partial truth in them,
从多元视角按图索骥 找到其代表的真理片段的能力
and then to be able to seam them together into something
将部分缝合为整体
that isn’t a perspective it’s a transperspective capacity
这是一种超越所有单一视角的能力
to hold the relationships between many perspectives
我们能够把握多元视角间的关系
in a way that can inform our choice-making
以此为基础 做出抉择
is fundamental to navigating reality well.
这一能力对于指导现实十分重要
How is it that we make claims of truth?
我们该如何定义事实?
And how would we begin to know if what we think
我们又该如何确定 我们认为的事实
is true is actually true.
真是事实呢?
This is the beginning of the scientific method.
科学方法应运而生
Let us begin with observation, pose a question,
于是我们开始观察 提出问题
figure out what the hypothesis would be
然后针对这特定问题
that would answer a particular question,
进行推测 发展假说
and then figure out how we would begin to address the hypothesis.
接着再思考 要如何证实或者证伪这个假说
That is a scientific approach to questions
这就是科学探究问题的方式
that could be addressed any number of ways.
具体探究方式多种多样
There is a kind of whispering campaign
也有一些声音在质疑
against the value of objective truth.
客观真理的价值
Science’s belief in objective truth works.
科学相信客观真实
Engineering technology based upon the science of objective truth, achieves results.
工程技术基于客观真实的科学 取得了成效
It manages to build planes that get off the ground.
建造出了航行于大地之上的飞机
It manages to send people to the moon
成功将人类送上了月亮
and explore Mars with robotic vehicles on comets.
将机器人送上了彗星以探索火星
Science works,
科学也成功了
science produces antibiotics, vaccines that work.
科学创造的抗生素和疫苗也成功了
So anybody who chooses to say,
所以那些还在叨叨着
“Oh there’s no such thing as objective truth.
“客观真理不存在
It’s all subjective, it’s all socially constructed.”
一切都是主观的 都是社会构建的”
Tell that to a doctor, tell that to a space scientist,
看看医生 看看航天科学家 还能说得出口吗
manifestly science works,
很明显 科学成功了
and the view that there is no such thing as objective truth doesn’t.
而那些否认客观真理的谬论一败涂地
When you write down the theory,
当一个理论被写下
the theory then becomes your teacher.
理论便成了创作者的老师
It becomes smarter than you in a way.
理论便超越了创作者
When Einstein wrote down the equations of general relativity,
爱因斯坦写下广义相对论方程时
he did not know
自己也没有意识到
that they entailed the existence of black holes.
相对论将会牵扯到黑洞
In that sense, the equations were smarter than Einstein.
这么说 相对论方程比爱因斯坦更“智慧”
Einstein didn’t believe in black holes for decades.
爱因斯坦本人几十年来拒绝相信黑洞
The equations were very clear that they could exist.
而这些方程却清楚指出了黑洞可能存在
Einstein said no.
爱因斯坦拒绝相信
Turned out Einstein was wrong and the equations were right.
事实证明爱因斯坦错了 而方程式是对的
So it’s very interesting.
非常有趣
We do these theories because we can learn from them.
我们发展理论是为了从中学习
When you try to address the nature of things,
当你在探究事物的本质时
you may find that asking different questions
可能会发现更多的问题
requires different ways of processing
要求你用不同的方式去处理
the underlying reality.
其背后的现实
For instance, in understanding the human mind
比如说 要理解人类的思维
to understand that physically requires
物理意义上的理解
one kind of processing.
需要特定的信息处理方式
And there’s every reason to think
我们不难想到
that we already have fundamental physical laws
现在已经有了基础性的物理规则
that are adequate to that kind of treatment.
足够进行大脑的治疗
But to understand how a person works,
但想要理解人脑的原理
how thought processes, moods, and so forth,
思想 情绪等又是如何运转的
add up to a personality and a human actor
再到人格与社会角色的形成
will require quite different ways of understanding
都需要我们用截然不同的方式理解
and quite different ways of processing
也要用不同的方式去处理
the underlying information structure.
其背后的信息结构

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视频概述

每个人都只能看到自己的世界

听录译者

收集自网络

翻译译者

条条大鹿通罗馬

审核员

审核员LJ

视频来源

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=RZdfE_7cde0

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