未登录,请登录后再发表信息
最新评论 (0)
播放视频

被动攻击是一种性格疾病吗

Is Passive-Aggressiveness a Personality Disorder?

你正享受这美好的早晨 然后
You’re having a perfectly good morning,and then you
你走进了厨房 你看到了这个:可怕的便利贴
walk into the kitchen and see it:the dreaded Post-It note.
它贴在你要清洗的餐具上
It’s stuck above the dishes you were totallygoing to do
或者你打算扔掉的垃圾上
or the trash you’re definitely planningto take out.
它画着一个笑脸 但真实信息却很明确
It has a smiley-face, but the real messageis clear.
你不把这件事当做麻烦吗?呃
That thing you didn’t think was a problem? Yeah,
很显然 它是个麻烦
apparently it’s a problem.
我们一直都是被动攻击行为的承受者
We’ve all been on the receiving end ofpassive-aggressive behavior…
或许我们甚至为此感到羞愧 事实上
and maybe even been guilty of it ourselves. Honestly,
这是
it kind
社会互动中不怎么幸运但又有很正常的一部分
of feels like an unfortunate but normal part of social interaction.
但是在心理学上 这一理论却富有争议
But in psychology, the idea is a lot morecontroversial.
[前奏♪]
[INTRO ♪]
心理学家把被动攻击行为定义为
Psychologists define passive-aggressive behavior
一种故意而又隐晦的表达愤怒的行为
as a deliberate but covert way of expressingfeelings of anger.
它不仅限于
And it ’ s not just
便利贴的表达形式——这一行为表现形式很多
Post-Its—this behavior can take a lot of forms,
包括从冷战到挖苦再到刻薄的玩笑多种形式
from the silent treatment to sarcasm and pointed jokes.
它还包括间接暴力 比如把锅碗瓢盆弄的当当响
It can also include indirect violence—likeslamming around pots and pans—
敷衍简单的回应 就像:当然
and unhelpful one-word responses…you know, like: Sure.
无所谓 好
Whatever.Fine.
然而不可思议的是 被动攻击行为
But one of the weird things about passive-aggressivebehavior
拥有极其复杂的历史
is how complicated its history is.
“被动攻击”这个词起源于第二次世界大战的美国军队中
The term “ passive-aggressive ” originated in the American military during World War II.
它用来形容用特定的方式
It was used to describe soldiers who refused to comply
拒绝服从命令的士兵
with orders in a particular way.
这些士兵没有直接拒绝服从 而是表现出生闷气 拖延
Rather than refusing outright, these soldierssulked, procrastinated,
故意消极怠工
and were deliberately inefficient.
是的 这样做惹怒了长官
And yes, it annoyed the heck out of the officers. So,
所以当第一版
when the first edition
《精神疾病诊断与统计手册》
of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Disorders,
简称《精神疾病诊断与统计》于1952年发表
or DSM, was published in 1952, psychologistsbasically just
心理学家基本上只是复制粘贴了这一说法 称之为被动攻击型人格障碍
copied-and-pasted this stuff in and calledit passive-aggressive personality disorder. And,
而且当时
at the time,
这一表述似乎也十分贴切真实的情况
it seemed to be a pretty good working definition of a real condition.
1996年 公立精神病医院的患者当中
In 1966, passive-aggressive personality disorderwas diagnosed in
3%都被检查出患有被动攻击型人格障碍
3% of patients in public psychiatric hospitals
而去医务所看病的人当中这一数字为9%
and 9% of those who visited outpatient clinics,
而医务所的病人通常都不住院
where people don’t stay overnight.
在第四版《精神疾病诊断和统计》
But by the time the fourth edition
出版之前
of the DSM was published,
对这一说法的争议越来越多
it had become more controversial.
到最后它被剔除出了主要内容
It ended up getting pulled from the main text,
放进了附录 并做了调整
put into the appendix, tweaked,
更名为抗拒性人格障碍
and renamed negativistic personality disorder.
而第五版《精神疾病诊断和统计》中已经完全没这个内容了
And in the DSM-5, it no longer appears at all.
但是心理学对于它的争论却没有结束
But psychologists still argue about it.
有些报纸上的标题更是夸张
Some papers even have dramatic titles,
比如“一种综合症的消亡”
like “ The Demise of a Syndrome. ”
批判“被动攻击型人格障碍”这一说法的人
Those who criticize the idea of passive-aggressivepersonality disorder
认为其中一个重要的问题就是
think one of the big problems is
对待恼人的问题
that there ’ s a difference between
感到挫败和病态处理之间是有区别的
being frustrated by an annoying behavior andpathologizing it.
他们认为在特定情景下感到挫败是正常反应
They argue that it’s a response to certainsituations,
并不算一项根深蒂固的人格特性 而且
not an ingrained personality trait. Plus,
他们认为这种人格障碍
they think the disorder
和其他的人格障碍有太多重复的地方了
overlaps too much with other personality disorders
而且关注的一系列行为都太局限
and focuses on too narrow of a set of behaviors.
所以 事实就是
And then there ’ s the fact that there aren ’
并没有大量关于
t a whole lot of
这一病症的研究及检测的研究 但是
direct studies observing and measuring it, though,
公平地说 它确实算是人格障碍 只是
to be fair, that’s true of mostpersonality disorders. Still,
现在对于“被动攻击型人格障碍”这件事还是存在一些争议
there are some arguments for passive-aggressive personality disorder as a thing.
2009年和2012年的研究发现
Studies published in 2009 and 2012 found thatthe definition
“被动攻击型人格障碍”比
of passive-aggressive personality disordermore accurately described
“被动人格障碍”更准确地描述了
the symptoms and experiences of the subjects
受试对象的症状和经历
than that of negativistic personality disorder.
虽然这种行为只出现在特定情景之下
And even if this behavior only appears situationally,
但它可能也以稳定的人格特征为基础
it’s possible that it’s based in a stablepersonality trait.
1970发表的一篇文章就记录了100名
A paper published in 1970 followed up with100 patients
被诊断患有被动攻击型人格障碍的患者15年后的生活
who were diagnosed with passive-aggressivepersonality disorder after 15 years.
这个研究表明这些患者的病症
And the researchers found that these patients’symptoms
长期以来都十分稳定
were fairly stable over the long term.
但它是不是人格障碍
But whether or not it’s a personality disorder,
心理学家似乎认为
psychologists seem to agree that there arefairly strong
被动攻击行为有非常有力的理论支持
theoretical underpinnings of passive-aggressivebehavior.
至少有一项研究表明
At least one study has suggested
它可能受基因因素影响
that there might be a genetic component to it.
但是更多的研究似乎更加支持另一观点 就是
But more research seems to support the idea that
它是由于失职的家庭教育 忽视虐待诸如此类的事情造成的
it can be the result of things like ineffective parenting, neglect and abuse.
本质上说
Essentially,
这一观点认为
the idea is that
孩子从小成长在一个无法适当表达
if a child grows up with situations
自己的愤怒和不同意见的环境中
where it’s not appropriate to express angeror disagreement,
他们发现表示出挑衅是能被社会接受的
they find ways to be defiant that are sociallyacceptable
而且不会造成不好的结果
and won’t result in bad consequences.
和这个发现一致的还有2003年的一个研究 它研究了62对异性情侣
Along these lines, a 2003 study had 62 heterosexualcouples
要他们坚持写三个星期的日记
keep daily diaries for three weeks.
研究发现越是对拒绝敏感的人
And the researchers found that people whowere more sensitive
越容易采用消极的策略来对待分歧 尤其是
to rejection were more likely to use passive strategies in a disagreement. Specifically,
他们会更多地
those people were more
保持沉默来避免争吵
likely to stay silent to avoid arguments,
更多地退让而不是表现出敌意
to withdraw rather than expressing hostility,
和父母争吵后会他们对父母的爱会减少
and to be less loving to their partners afterthey argued.
所以似乎这些一致的理由就是人类表现出被动攻击行为的原因
So it seems like there are some consistent reasons why people might act passive-aggressively.
也就是说,这一切都还不够
That said, all this isn’t great.
尽管在一些境遇中被动攻击行为是有用的
Although passive-aggressive behavior may helpin certain situations,
但是在大多数情况下
in most cases,
它都是一种令人失望 徒劳无获的处理冲突的方式
it ’ s a frustrating and unproductive way to deal with conflict.
所以我们能为此做些什么呢?
So what can you do about it?
在治疗方面现在还没有
In terms of therapy and treatment… there isn
足够的研究可以说明心理咨询是否
’ t enough research right now to say whether
真的对那些深受被动攻击行为困扰的患者有效
counseling can really help people whose lives are seriously impacted by their passive-aggressive behavior.
但是对于你日常生活里存在的被动攻击
But for passive-aggressiveness in your day-to-day life,
心理学家确实有些建议
psychologists do have a few pointers.
你应该注意
You can pay attention to
你是否在极度沮丧或者经历被动攻击时
whether you might be triggering this kind of response
引起了(对方)这样的反应
by getting extremely upset or being passive-aggressiveyourself.
你也可以积极地鼓励进行开诚布公的对话
And you can also try actively encouragingopen, honest conversations.
但最主要的是 我们需要进行更多的研究
But mostly, more research needs to be doneto better understand
以更好地理解被动攻击行为 最终彻底结束这场争论
passive-aggressive behavior and to settlethe debates once and for all.
感谢收看这集《心理科学秀》
Thanks for watching this episode of SciShowPsych!
如果你想了解更多可能对于人际关系
If you want to learn more about behaviorsthat can be
不利的行为 可以观看我们相关的视频
not so great in relationships, check out ourepisode on codependency.
[结束♪]
[OUTRO ♪]

发表评论

译制信息
视频概述

当你和别人产生矛盾,说还是不说,当你生气了,说还是不说……有时候沉默也是一种攻击性的行为哦!

听录译者

收集自网络

翻译译者

哟嚯嚯~,哦嚯嚯嚯

审核员

审核员HL

视频来源

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=zIkbHeQx3kI

相关推荐