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肉类真的有害无益吗? – 译学馆
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肉类真的有害无益吗?

Is Meat Bad for You? Is Meat Unhealthy?

When our vegetarian ancestors started eating meat around two million years ago,
在大约两百万年前 我们素食主义的祖先开始吃肉
it wasn’t just because animals taste great,
这样做并不只是因为动物的味道比较好
it was pure necessity.
还因为完全是生活必需
Climate change made many of the plants our ancestors relied on less available
气候变化让我们的祖先更难获取赖以生存的植物
and meat bridged that gap.
而肉弥补了这一空缺
From the discovery of fire at the latest,
从发现火起
meat became a staple of the human diet.
肉就成了人类的主食
But over the last few years
但是在过去几年
eating meat has increasingly been associated with health risks like:
越来越多的人认为吃肉与健康风险相关
heart disease, certain cancers, and an early death.
比如心脏病 某些癌症 早逝
So how unhealthy is meat, really?
那么吃肉很不健康 这是真的吗?
科普动画创意设计网(德国)
In this video we’ll only talk about meat.
在本期视频中我们就只谈一谈肉食
Dairy products deserve a video of their own.
乳制品值得专门的一期视频来讨论
Biologically, we need to eat for three reasons:
生物学上 我们吃肉有三个理由
for energy, to acquire materials to fabricate our cells,
获得能量 获取生成细胞的物质
and to get special molecules that our bodies can’t make themselves.
获得我们的身体无法自己生成的一些特殊分子
The energy and most of the materials come from the three macronutrients: fats, carbohydrates and proteins.
能量和大部分物质来自三种常量营养素:脂肪 碳水化合物和蛋白质
Proteins are the most important resource for repairing and replenishing our cell structures.
蛋白质是修复和补充细胞结构的最重要的物质
The special molecules are a large variety
人类自身无法生成的特殊分子包括
of vitamins and minerals we need to drive metabolic processes.
我们新陈代谢过程中所需要的各种各样的维生素和矿物质
Meat provides us with most of these things.
而肉类提供了大部分的这些营养素
It contains all essential amino acids our body needs
它包含了所有人体所需的氨基酸
and a lot of minerals like:
大量矿物质
iron, zinc and essential vitamins,
比如铁 锌和必要的维生素
some of which are barely found in plants like Vitamin B12.
一些维生素在植物中几乎不存在 比如维生素B12
Only one essential nutrient is missing in most of the meat we consume: vitamin C.
我们吃的大部分肉类中只缺失一种必要的营养素:维生素C
It appears in almost all plants and supports our immune system
它却存在于几乎所有的植物中 作用是增强我们的免疫力
as well as the development of connective tissues.
促进结缔组织的生长
After a few months without it you’d get scurvy.
要是几个月都没摄入维生素C 你就会得坏血病
But meat has another big advantage, it’s high bioavailability.
但是肉类有另一个巨大的优势 那就是高生物利用度
Some of the nutrients in meat
相比于植物 肉类中的一些营养物质
are broken down faster and available quicker than those from plants.
能更迅速地分解和吸收
Spinach for example, contains more iron than meat,
比如菠菜比肉类含有更多的铁元素
but it’s absorbed much slower
但菠菜中的铁元素 我们吸收地更慢
and the body needs more energy to digest it.
身体也需要更多地能量来消化它
Several health benefits have also been observed in communities that rely solely on meat.
在完全依赖肉食的群体中 人们也发现了肉食有助于健康的地方
The Inuit for example,
比如因纽特人
are able to survive in extreme climate conditions thanks to a purely meat-based diet.
纯肉类的饮食习惯让他们得以在极端气候条件下生存
Since they consume the whole animal including the organs,
因为他们吃掉了包括器官在内的整个动物
they get every single nutrient they need
获得了每一种他们需要的营养物质
including vitamin C.
包括维生素C
So meat itself is definitely not dangerous for us.
所以肉类本身对我们绝对没有危害
But its health effects vary,
但是它对健康的影响
depending on how its prepared and what animal it comes from.
因其制作方法和动物种类而各不相同
When talking about meat in the Western world,
在西方世界谈论到肉类的时候
we generally mean muscle tissues that have a high nutrient density,
我们通常指的是营养素密度高 却也缺少
but also lack some of the vitamins
一些维生素肌肉组织
that make it possible to survive on meat alone.
让人类只靠肉食就能生存
The most healthy animals to eat are probably fish.
最健康的肉类可能是鱼肉
Fish contains polyunsaturated fatty acids like omega-3,
鱼类含有多不饱和脂肪酸 比如ω–3脂肪酸
which may lower the risk of cardiovascular diseases and support anti-inflammatory immune functions.
可以降低心血管疾病的风险 增强抗炎免疫能力
As part of a balanced diet, fish can be eaten regularly without worries.
作为均衡饮食的一部分 鱼肉可以经常吃并且无需担心
Eating fish comes with its own bag of complications though,
然而吃鱼却为鱼类带来很多问题
like overfishing and the destruction of the oceans.
比如过度捕捞 海洋破坏
We’ll talk about that in another video.
我们会在另一期视频中谈这些
A close second is the most popular meat, chicken.
第二受欢迎的是鸡肉
It’s regarded as the meat with the fewest health risks.
它被认为是健康风险最小的肉类
The only negative health effect of poultry is a bit controversial:
禽类对健康唯一的负面影响还有点争议
fat.
就是它们的脂肪
Its high content of saturated fats is associated
禽类富含饱和脂肪
with a higher cholesterol level and cardiovascular disease.
它与高胆固醇 心血管疾病有关
But this idea has also been criticized by a large number of scientists
但是这种观点 也受到许多科学家的批评
arguing high cholesterol levels might be inherited and not caused by nutrition.
他们认为胆固醇水平高可能是遗传导致而非营养素
So in general, if you want meat and are concerned about your health,
总之如果你想吃肉又关注健康
go for chicken.
那就去吃鸡肉
Things start to get problematic with high intakes of
健康问题的出现是由于过量食用红肉
red meats like beef, veal, pork, lamb, horse and goat.
像牛肉 小牛肉 猪肉 羔羊肉 马肉和山羊肉
A recently published study recommends for example
最近发布的一项研究建议
a maximum of 23 grams of red meat per day
每天最多吃23克红肉
which is a very small steak per week.
也就是每周吃很小一块牛排
However,large-scale meta-analysis studies have shown that
然而 大量的元分析研究表明
eating 100 grams of red meat every day
每天吃100克红肉
increases the risk of diabetes by 19 %,
会使患糖尿病风险增加19%
of strokes by 11 % and of colorectal cancer by 17 %.
中风风险增加11% 患直肠癌风险增加17%
This sounds alarming.
这听起来让人震惊
But before we panic,
但是恐慌之前
let’s have a look at how these studies were conducted.
让我们看看这些研究是怎么做的吧
Because this brings us to the second big problem
因为这让我们在试图回答 肉类是否健康这个问题时
when trying to answer the question of whether meat is unhealthy or not.
思考第二个大问题
Most studies that linked health risks to eating red meat were case-control studies.
大多数将健康风险和食用红肉相联系的研究都是病例对照研究
Which means taking a group of people with a disease
也就是将一群患有疾病的人
and classifying them by their eating habits.
按照他们的饮食习惯分类
The more red meat they consume,
他们食用越多红肉
the more likely they were to contract certain diseases.
就越可能得某些疾病
The problem is that it’s very hard to eliminate other factors.
问题是这很难排除其他的影响因素
People who eat less meat tend to live a healthier lifestyle in general.
通常来说食用肉类越少的人生活方式可能越健康
They tend to eat more vegetables and fruit
他们会吃更多蔬菜和水果
and are less likely to smoke and drink alcohol.
不太可能抽烟喝酒
Most studies try to eliminate these factors,
大多数研究想要排除这些因素
but it’s extremely hard to make definitive statements.
但是很难得出明确的结论
Things get worse when we look at processed meat though.
而加工过的肉制品让这一问题变得更加严重了
Processing meat means adding certain chemicals
加工肉制品意味着添加某些化学物质
by curing, smoking, salting or fermenting
把肉类进行腌制 烟熏 盐渍或者发酵
or in other words making it delicious.
换句话说 让肉更美味
Bacon, ham, salami, sausages and hot dogs
培根 火腿 腊肠 香肠 热狗
contain chemicals that are harmful for us
都含有对我们有害的物质
like nitrates and nitrites that can damage the DNA
像硝酸盐和亚硝酸盐
in our digestive system and lead to cancer.
他们会破坏消化系统中的DNA 导致癌症
The WHO reviewed 800 studies over 20 years,
世界卫生组织回顾了近二十多年来的800项研究
and concluded that processed meat is strongly linked
总结得出 加工肉制品
to an increased risk of colorectal cancer.
和直肠癌风险增加密切相关
Each extra 50 grams of processed meat per day
每天多吃50克加工肉制品
increases your risk of cancer by 18 percent.
就会使患癌风险增加18%
When it comes to cancer risk,
谈到癌症风险
processed meat is now in the same category as plutonium, asbestos and smoking.
加工肉类和钚 石棉 吸烟的影响不相上下
The WHO highlights that its research is only
世界卫生组织强调
about the question of whether or not something
他们的研究只是关于
causes cancer and not to what extent.
某种物质是否会造成癌症 程度如何
But processed meat may also significantly increase the chance of
但是加工肉制品也可能增加
suffering from diabetes, strokes and coronary heart diseases.
患糖尿病 中风和冠心病的风险
It also makes a difference what sort of life our meat lived
我们所吃的动物的养殖方式
when it was still part of a living being.
也会产生影响
It’s common to feed large amounts of antibiotics to livestock
给牲畜喂养大量抗生素
in order to prevent diseases
来防止疾病是常见的饲养方式
which can spread antibiotic resistance.
这会增加抗生素抗药性
Combined, a high consumption of both red and processed meat
而且 大量食用红肉和加工肉制品
could increase your chance of premature death by up to 29%.
会使早逝的可能性增加29%
This means if your chance of dying is at 3 % this year,
这意味着如果你今年死亡的可能性是3%
it’s now 4 %.
那么现在是4%
This might not sound like a lot
听起来似乎微不足道
but tiny percentages have a huge impact on societies of millions.
但是这极少的比例就会对有着数百万人的社会产生巨大影响
They also seem harmless until they affect you.
在影响你之前它们都看起来无害
To blame meat alone for bad health would be wrong though.
所以把不健康的原因仅仅归咎于肉类是错误的
There is no evidence that the very essence
没有证据表明肉类本质上
of meat has any negative effect beyond it’s high fat content.
除了高脂肪含量之外还有其他负面影响
And even this point is highly contentious.
甚至这一点也极具争议
Just like with many other pleasures in life,
就像生活中其他乐趣一样
sometimes too much of a good thing is harmful.
有时候好东西太多也会有害
Most public health agencies suggest
大多数公共健康机构建议
cutting meat consumption to 500 grams a week
将肉类食用量降低到每周500克
while studies suggest cutting down processed meat as much as possible.
而研究建议尽量减少食用加工肉制品
So if you feast on meat no more
所以如果你每周吃肉不超过两次
than once or twice a week, you should be good.
那就还好
For most people this already means
但这对大多数人来说就已经意味着
a drastic change in their diets though,
他们的饮食将发生巨大变化
The average American consumes around almost 1600 grams of meat a week.
美国人平均每周食用大约1600克肉
The average German 1100 grams a week.
德国人平均每周1100克
And many of us needs much much more.
而我们很多人吃的甚至更多
If you’re not really sure,
如果你还不十分确定
make a small note whenever you eat meat for a week or two.
那么在一个或两个星期内 你一旦吃肉 就记录下来
You’ll be surprised how much it really is.
你会惊讶自己吃了这么多的肉
So most people watching this video would benefit from cutting down on meat.
所以大多数人看了这个视频都会从减少吃肉中受益
Aside from health concerns,
除了健康问题
there’s still the fact that the meat industry
肉类工业中还存有问题
is one of the largest contributors to climate change
它是气候变化最大因素之一
and has reached a scale where
它的现有规模
it’s impossible to deliver millions of tons of meat
是无法在运送数百万吨肉的情况下
and still treat animals with dignity.
仍然做到尊重动物的
We’ve already discussed that in detail in another video.
我们已经在另一期视频中详细讨论过这些
All in all, in moderation,
总而言之
meat is not unhealthy and you don’t need to become vegetarian overnight
适量的肉不是不健康的 你不必一夜之间成为一个素食主义者
to have a real impact on your health and the planet.
从而对你的健康和地球带来真正的影响
But your lifestyle choices do matter.
但是你的生活方式的确很重要
For yourself and for others.
为了你自己和其他人
The key is being open to trying something new once in a while.
关键是偶尔尝试一些新东西
Maybe you’ll discover your new favourite dish.
也许你会发现你喜欢的新佳肴
Until you try you’ll never know what you’ll enjoy or what you’re capable of.
只有尝试之后你才会知道你喜欢什么或者你能做到什么
Maybe after watching hours of Kurzgesagt videos,
可能看完几个小时《科普动画创意设计网》的视频
you’ve decided you’d like to learn how to animate.
你会决定学习动画制作
Now you might not know this,
现在你可能对此不了解
but most of our team actually has a graphic design background.
但是我们团队大部分人都有平面设计背景
Learning about design principles first before
在学习动画制作之前首先学习设计原理
we got into animation was really key to where we are today.
对我们现在的成就至关重要
There’s a really great new Skillshare class on using Adobe Illustrator,
这里有很多非常好的关于使用Adobe Illustrator的Skillshare新课程
The software we use to create artwork
我们使用的这个软件
by graphic designer Aaron Draplin
是平面设计师Aaron Draplin的作品
and we can personally recommend it.
我们推荐使用这个软件
It’s full of great tips to help understand and simplify a very complicated program.
这上面有很多帮助理解和简化复杂程序的技巧
If you want to do more afterwards,
如果你想要学习更多
we have three animation courses of our own on Skillshare too.
我们在Skillshare上有三个动画制作课程
Skillshare offers over 25,000 classes on topics
Skillshare提供25000多个课程
like film and video editing, writing,
包含了许多资深专家在电影 视频编辑 写作
design and technology from an array of skilled experts.
设计和技术方面的课程
With the Premium Membership,
如果拥有高级会员
you can access all of them for only $ 10 a month.
每月只需花10美元 就可学习所有课程
And as a bonus,
作为福利
the first 1000 Kurzgesagt viewers to use the link in the description,
点击视频简介中链接观看了《科普动画创意设计网》视频的前1000名
will get their first two months of Skillshare for free.
可以免费使用Skillshare两个月

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