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人生是否有意义?

Is life meaningless? And other absurd questions - Nina Medvinskaya

TED教育 值得学习的课程
“如果世界清晰可见 艺术将不复存在” ——阿尔贝·加缪《西西弗的神话:荒诞创作》
Albert Camus grew up surrounded by violence.
阿尔贝·加缪在充满暴力的环境中长大
His homeland of Algeria was mired in conflict
他的家乡阿尔及利亚那时正深陷
between native Algerians and colonizing French Europeans.
当地人与法国殖民者的冲突中
He lost his father in the First World War,
他在一战期间失去了父亲
and was deemed unfit to fight in the second.
并在二战时被认定不适合参战
Battling tuberculosis in France
在法国与肺结核作斗争
and confronting the war’s devastation as a resistance journalist,
并以抵抗记者的身份目睹战争造成的破坏
Camus grew despondent.
加缪变得更加郁郁寡欢
He couldn’t fathom any meaning behind all this endless bloodshed and suffering.
他无法从这无尽的杀戮和苦难背后寻得任何意义
He asked: if the world was meaningless,
他问道:如果整个世界都毫无意义
could our individual lives still hold value?
那我们个人的生命还会有价值吗?
Many of Camus’ contemporaries were exploring similar questions
在一种新的哲学理论——存在主义的旗帜下
under the banner of a new philosophy called existentialism.
许多和加缪同时代的人都探讨着类似的问题
Existentialists believed people were born as blank slates,
存在主义者认为 人们出生时都是一片空白
each responsible for creating their life’s meaning amidst a chaotic world.
每个人都有责任在这混乱的世界中创造出自己生命的意义
But Camus rejected their school of thought.
但加缪拒绝接受这一学派的观点
He argued all people were born with a shared human nature
他认为 所有人生来具有共同的人性
that bonded them toward common goals.
能使人们朝着共同的目标前进
One such goal was to seek out meaning
其中一个目标就是 找到人生的意义
despite the world’s arbitrary cruelty.
不论世界怎样肆意残暴
Camus viewed humanity’s desire for meaning and the universe’s silent indifference
加缪把人类对人生意义的渴望和宇宙无声的冷漠
as two incompatible puzzle pieces,
视作两块不兼容的拼图
and considered trying to fit them together
而妄图将二者拼接在一起的做法
to be fundamentally absurd.
在他看来无比荒唐
This tension became the heart of Camus’ Philosophy of the Absurd,
这一矛盾成为加缪荒诞哲学理论的核心
which argued that life is inherently futile.
该理论认为 人生本就是无意义的
Exploring how to live without meaning
探索如何没有意义地活着
became the guiding question behind Camus’ early work,
成为加缪早期作品中的引导性问题
which he called his “cycle of the absurd.”
这就是他所谓的“荒诞循环”
The star of this cycle,
这个循环的主角
and Camus’ first published novel,
加缪发表的第一篇小说
offers a rather bleak response.
对此做出了相当凄凉的回答
“The Stranger” follows Meursault, an emotionally detached young man
《局外人》的主人公莫尔索 一名冷漠的年轻男子
who doesn’t attribute much meaning to anything.
认为一切都没有意义
He doesn’t cry at his mother’s funeral,
在母亲的葬礼上 他没有哭
he supports his neighbor’s scheme to humiliate a woman,
他支持邻居羞辱一位女士的计划
he even commits a violent crime —
他甚至进行了一次暴力犯罪
but Meaursault feels no remorse.
但莫尔索从未有过悔恨感
For him the world is pointless
对他而言 整个世界都毫无意义
and moral judgment has no place in it.
道德审判无立锥之地
This attitude creates hostility between Meursault
这种人生态度使莫尔索与他生活的有序社会间
and the orderly society he inhabits,
产生了敌对意味
slowly increasing his alienation until the novel’s explosive climax.
他越发与世隔绝 直至小说爆炸性的高潮部分
Unlike his spurned protagonist, Camus was celebrated for his honest philosophy.
不像他笔下被藐视的主人公 加缪的诚实哲学受到了赞美
“The Stranger” catapulted him to fame, and Camus continued producing works
《局外人》让他声名鹊起 接着加缪继续创作
that explored the value of life amidst absurdity
以期在荒诞之中探索生命的价值
many of which circled back to the same philosophical question:
这些作品大部分都兜转到同一个哲学问题:
if life is truly meaningless,
如果生活真的毫无意义
is committing suicide the only rational response?
自杀是否是唯一理性的回应?
Camus’ answer was an emphatic “no.”
加缪的回答显然是“不”
There may not be any explanation for our unjust world,
对于我们这个不公的世界 或许没有任何解释
but choosing to live regardless
但选择义无反顾的活着
is the deepest expression of our genuine freedom.
是我们真正自由最深沉的表达
Camus explains this in one of his most famous essays
加缪在一篇最著名的文章中解释了这点
which centers on the Greek myth of Sisyphus.
这篇文章讲的是古希腊神话中的西西弗斯
Sisyphus was a king who cheated the gods,
西西弗斯是一个欺骗了众神的国王
and was condemned to endlessly roll a boulder up a hill.
被处罚终生往山上滚巨石
The cruelty of his punishment lies in its singular futility,
这种惩罚的残忍性在于其独特的无用性
but Camus argues all of humanity is in the same position.
但加缪认为 每个人都处在同样的位置中
And only when we accept the meaninglessness of our lives
只有当我们接受了生命的无意义
can we face the absurd with our heads held high.
才能高昂着头面对这件荒诞的事
As Camus says, when the king chooses to begin his relentless task once more,
当西西弗斯选择再次开始这无尽的任务时 加缪说
“One must imagine Sisyphus happy.”
“人们一定在想 西西弗斯乐在其中”
Camus’ contemporaries weren’t so accepting of futility.
加缪同时代的人不太能接受无用性
Many existentialists advocated for violent revolution
许多存在主义者拥护暴力革命
to upend systems they believed were depriving people of agency and purpose.
从而颠覆他们认为剥夺人的能动性和目的性的制度
Camus responded with his second set of work: the cycle of revolt.
加缪用他的第二部作品——反叛循环来回应
In “The Rebel,” he explored rebellion as a creative act,
在《反抗者》中 他把反抗看做一种创造性行为
rather than a destructive one.
而非一种破坏性行为
Camus believed that inverting power dynamics
加缪认为 对权力的反抗
only led to an endless cycle of violence.
只能带来无尽的暴力
Instead, the way to avoid needless bloodshed
相反 避免不必要的流血事件的方式
is to establish a public understanding of our shared human nature.
是为了建立 公众对我们人类共性的理解
Ironically, it was this cycle of relatively peaceful ideas
讽刺的是 正是这个相对和平的思想循环
that triggered his fallout with many fellow writers and philosophers.
导致他与许多作家 哲学家朋友展开论战
Despite the controversy,
尽管有争议
Camus began work on his most lengthy and personal novel yet:
加缪依旧开始了他写过的最长的个人小说:
an autobiographical work entitled “The First Man.”
自传作品——《第一人》
The novel was intended to be the first piece in a hopeful new direction: the cycle of love.
该小说被认为是朝着充满希望的新方向发展的第一部作品:爱的循环
But in 1960, Camus suddenly died in a car accident
但1960年 加缪突然死于车祸
that can only be described as meaningless and absurd.
那场车祸只能被看作是无意义又荒诞的
While the world never saw his cycle of love,
尽管他的爱的循环从未面世
his cycles of revolt and absurdity continue to resonate with readers today.
但他的反抗与荒诞循环至今仍给读者以共鸣
His concept of absurdity has become a part of world literature,
他的荒诞概念已成为世界文学
20th century philosophy, and even pop culture.
20世纪的哲学 甚至流行文化的一部分
Today, Camus remains a trusted guide for moments of uncertainty;
今天 加缪还是人们迷茫时可信任的引导者
his ideas defiantly imbuing a senseless world with inspiration
他的思想大胆地给这个毫无意义的世界注入了灵感
rather than defeat.
而非挫败感

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视频概述

《局外人》这本书给读者们以启迪,这个视频就来讲讲其作者加缪的故事以及他的思考。

听录译者

收集自网络

翻译译者

三顷

审核员

审核员 V

视频来源

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=vPtzpjC7TF4

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