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如何建造一个从韩国到日本的大型隧道

Is It Possible to Build a Tunnel from Japan to Korea?

这里是《肯托亚洲》频道
I’m Kento Bento.
本期视频由Brilliant赞助
This video ismade possible by Brilliant,
这是一个题目求解网站
a problem-solving website
可以教你像科学家一样思考
that teaches you to think like a scientist.
在brilliant.org/kentobento注册的前200人
The first 200 people to signup at brilliant.org/kentobento
可以获得20%的网站付费订阅折扣
will get 20% off theirpremium subscription.
1917年 一位名为小矶国昭的日军将领
In 1917, a Japanese Army general by the name of Kuniaki Koiso
产生了将日本与亚洲大陆连接到一起的想法
wanted to connect Japanto the rest of Asia.
他建议修建一条从日本
He suggested the idea ofbuilding a grand tunnel
一路连通到韩国的大隧道
from Japan all the way to Korea.
这无疑是一项大工程
Certainly a tremendousfeat of engineering,
不仅对于当时来说
and not just for that point in time.
在接下来的百年中 尽管有了各种行业先例
Over the next hundred years, through the various incarnations,
和无数提案
and despite the numerous proposals,
工程从未真正付诸实施
the project never moved beyond conception. Today,
我们知道 直到今天
as we know, there’sstill yet to be a tunnel
两国之间依然没有任何隧道或桥梁
or bridge connecting the two countries.
但问题是 这种情况还会持续多久?
But the question is, for how long?
提醒一下
Just a reminder,
别忘了订阅我们的频道 并点击铃形按钮接收通知
don’t forget to subscribe and click the bell button to be part of our notification squad. Now,
在隧道和桥梁这两个选择之中
of the two options,a tunnel or a bridge,
桥梁从未被真正考虑过
a bridge was never truly considered
因为一直以来这一地区海上交通都很繁忙
as sea traffic in theregion was and is extensive.
两国之间的固定道路
A fixed link connecting the two
会截断繁忙的朝鲜海峡
nations would cross that busy Korea Strait
这里有无数国际航道
where numerousinternational shipping lanes
和载客渡轮经过此处
and passenger ferry routes pass through. Thus,
所以 无论是修建韩日友谊隧道系统
whether it’s the Korea-JapanFriendship Tunnel System,
还是日韩海底隧道
or the Japan-KoreaUndersea Tunnel, or JKUT,
这种水下隧道 都是更好地选择
an underwater tunnel wassimply the better option.
比起空中交通 连通陆路
Compared to air travel, havingan accessible route by land
也更加经济
is also going to savepeople a lot of money,
特别是货物运输
especially when sending goods,
这就是为什么大多公司选用海运
which is why most companiestend to use sea routes.
虽然比起陆运依然价格高昂
Though that’s still significantly more expensive than sending by land.
隧道工程计划可供
The proposed tunnel wouldalso serve a portion
2万人每日
of the 20,000 people who travel daily
在韩日之间交通往来
between Korea and Japan. Ultimately,
最终会增加
there would be an increase
两国间的经济活动
in economic activity for both countries,
促进整个东亚的经济发展
contributing to the economic development of the whole of East Asia.
现在 说到连接大陆的岛国
of an island country connecting to a continent,
你可能会想到日本与亚洲大陆的关系
Japan’s relation with the rest of Asia may come to mind.
但大多人会想到英国和欧洲大陆
But for most, it’s the UK and Europe.
正如日本需要与韩国连通
Just as Japan would needto connect to South Korea,
英法之间已经通过
the UK has alreadyconnected to France by way
英法海底隧道连接
of the Channel Tunnel, or Chunnel.
这条隧道的水下部分有37.9千米
At 37.9 kilometers, The Chunnel currently
为世界最长
has the longest undersea portionof any tunnel in the world.
而整条隧道
If we consider the entirety of the tunnel,
长度达到50.5千米
then we’re looking at an evengreater 50.5 kilometer link.
但这依然比不上
But even that is shortof the Seikan Tunnel
连接日本本州与北海道的青函隧道
connecting the islandsof Honshu and Hokkaido,
其全长53.9千米
which at 53.9 kilometers is overall
是世界最长的海底隧道
the longest undersea tunnel in the world.
但无论你以何种方式度量
Now whichever measurement you go by,
长度都比不上
neither would even comeclose to the distance
日韩隧道
covered by the Japan-Korea tunnel.
有三条计划路线
There are three proposed routes,
都以日本佐贺县的唐津市为起点
all starting at Karatsu in the Saga Prefecture in Japan,
连接壹岐岛 再到对马岛的不同地点
connecting to Iki Island, then onto differingpoints on Tsushima Island.
从这里开始 两条路线通到终点韩国巨济岛
From there two routes terminate at Geoje Island in South Korea,
第三条通到韩国釜山影岛区
with a third at Yeongdu, Busan. Which,
不考虑长度
despite its lengthand suspect location,
不考虑经过地震带 位置危险
it passing through a seismic zone,
第三条路线是最有利的选择
is perhaps the favored option, as it would be close
因为这条线靠近韩国最大港口——釜山港
to the largest port in SouthKorea, the Port of Busan,
会成为运转最为高效 经济最为有利的路线
making this the most efficientand economically sound route.
完工后 隧道总长会达到惊人的230千米
If completed, the tunnel willhave a astonishing length of 230 kilometers,
水下部分会达到145千米左右
with just the undersea portion being approximately 145 kilometers.
这个长度是英法海底隧道
This is more than four times the length
或青函隧道的4倍多
of the Chunnel or the Seikan Tunnel.
仅需50分钟车程 沿线高速铁路就可以连接日韩
A high-speed rail along this route would connect Japan and Korea in just 50 minutes.
如果要从东京到1550千米外的首尔
If traveling from Tokyo to Seoul, a distance of 1550 kilometers,
需要7个小时
it would take about seven hours.
青函隧道工程花费70亿美元
Now the cost of the SeikanTunnel was $7 billion,
英法海底隧道花费210亿美元
the cost of the Chunnel $ 21 billion,
日韩海底隧道的花费会是多少呢?
but the cost of JKUT?
大概是1110美元到1570美元之间
Anywhere from $111billion to $157 billion,
估计需要15~20年才能完工
and it would take an estimated 15 to 20 years to complete.
我之前的视频中介绍过亚洲未来会发生的事件
In my previous video on futureevents to happen in Asia,
我预测过这条隧道会在2040年之前完工
I had actually predicted this tunnel to be completed by the year 2040.
如果你想观看这期视频 链接已附在下方
If you want to check out that video, the link’s down below.
这项工程的可行性屡次受到质疑
The viability of this project has been questioned from time to time,
但据称 隧道会为货运节省30%的费用
but the tunnel is purported to provide a savings of 30% incosts for transported goods,
另外 日本货运商送货到大陆
as well as making profit off toll charges
所付的通行费也会带来收益
paid by Japanese shipperssending cargo to the mainland.
而且还会创造45000个新岗位
Add to that the 45,000 newjobs that would be created
并带来建筑业 旅游业的复兴
and the revival of the constructionand tourism industries.
日本和韩国喜欢进行大型基础设施工程建设
Japan and South Korea have tended to favor large infrastructure projects,
所以隧道建造似乎已成必然
so the construction of this tunnel may seem like an inevitability.
现有技术可以解决任何遇到的工程难题
Any engineering challenges can also be met with existing technologies,
但一百年过去了 隧道计划为什么没有实施呢?
so a hundred years on, why isn’t this a reality? Well,
或许有人知道 更麻烦的问题并非出于工程建设
as some of you may know, there’s something far more daunting than just the engineering aspect.
而在于铁路轨距不匹配
Yes, there’s the issue ofrail gauges not matching up,
以及隧道火灾 地震威胁 非法移民等安全隐患
safety concerns like tunnel fires, the threat of earthquakes, unauthorized immigration,
而且日韩两国车辆靠不同侧行驶
Japan and South Korea driving on different sides of the road.
虽然事情总不完美 存在这些问题
But for all these, whilenot always perfect,
但也有办法解决
there are solutions.
其中最大的问题在于
Arguably the biggest issue of all
两国间历史性的心理障碍
is the historic psychological barrier between the two countries.
就像地球上的所有邻国
Just about every neighboringcountry on earth has,
都曾发生战争 血洒战场一样
at one point or another,spilt blood over shared soil.
日韩两国也不例外
Japan and South Korea are no different.
在超过1500年的时间里
For over 1,500 years, their relationship
两国之间都进行着文化交流
had been defined by cultural exchange,
政治接触 贸易 以及战争
political contact, trade, and war. Now,
特别是16世纪
more specifically Japan’s invasions
日本入侵朝鲜半岛
of the peninsula in the 16th century,
以及近代随着二战结束才终结的
as well as the more recent colonization in the early 20th century,
20世纪初期对朝殖民
which ended with World War II,
都使韩国人难以消除心中的排斥感
have produced a mistrust that has been hard to dispel by many Koreans.
在各方面 日韩隧道计划
In many circles today, the veryidea of a Japan-Korea tunnel
都受到了怀疑和轻视
has been met with suspicion and contempt.
有人注意到 拥有连接大陆的固定交通线路
Some note having a fixedlink to the mainland
会极大增强日本对大陆的
would help Japan greatlyexpand its economic
政治 经济影响力
and political influencewell into the continent,
而这方面韩国所得难以与之相比
while South Korea would havea disproportionate gain.
另一方面情况相反 隧道会给日本
Conversely though, while the increased rate of economic growth caused
带来5%的经济增长
by the tunnel would be about 5 % for Japan,
而韩国经济会增长到150%
Korea could see an increase of up to 150%. So,
所以这件事有不同的角度
there are differing angles to this.
正因如此 釜山市长徐秉洙
As such, the mayor of Busan, Suh Byung-soo
表示支持建设隧道
has shown support for theconstruction of the tunnel,
尽管收到了3万条市民信息
despite receiving 30,000angry messages from citizens
怒称其为“卖国贼”
calling him a traitor to Korea. Likewise,
而日本部分民众对此反应也大体相同
some in Japanhave had similar reactions. So,
所以为了使隧道构想充分实现
in order for thistunnel to be fully realized,
两国都需要克服情感障碍
both sides need to overcomethis emotional hurdle.
这些事听起来可能有些耳熟
Now all this may sound sort of familiar,
因为这与英法之间的事如出一辙
because this mirrors thestory of the UK and France.
如同日韩两国 英法之间的关系同样深远复杂
Just like for Japan and Korea, their historical ties are long and complex.
英法之间进行过著名的百年战争
The French and English famouslyfought a Hundred Years’ War,
时至今日也常被视作仇敌
and are still today oftenreferred to as rivals.
实际上早在1802年 关于两国间的
There had long been talksof a cross-Channel tunnel
跨海峡隧道已经经过了长期谈判
between the two countries,in fact as early as 1802,
但社会和政治压力让所有尝试止步于开工建设
but social and political pressures had always haltedattempts at construction. Yet,
与亚洲方面的情况不同的是
unlike their Asian counterparts,
事情在期间发生了变化
something changed along the way.
英法做到了忽略历史分歧
The UK and France were able to overlook their historical divide,
最终达成正式协议
with an agreementfinally being formalized.
隧道于1994年开通
And in 1994, the Channel Tunnel opened,
象征着两国关系的重大转变
signifying a major changein their relationship. Today,
今天 大多数人认为
most agree thatthis was a positive change
这无论对两国 还是欧洲大陆
for both countries in many ways,
都是一个多方面的积极转变
as well as for the European continent.
心理障碍的崩解
The breakdown of thatpsychological barrier
对于消除两国都存在的
was key to lifting the island mentality
岛国心态来说是关键
arguably held by both nations.
岛国心态指的是隔绝的社群
Island mentality refers to theidea of isolated communities
从各方面都认为自己
to varying degrees perceiving themselves
比其他社群更为特殊
as different and special from the rest,
这个术语并不一定指的是
with the term not necessarily referring
受自然地理条件限制的社群 比如真正的岛屿
to a physical or geographical confinement, like an actual island,
更多指的是国家自身文化和意识形态上的限制
but more a cultural and ideological confinement of a nation’s self.
日韩两国如果想真正建设交通线路
Japan and South Korea may need to lose elements of this mindset
或许需要放弃这种心态
if they are to ever forge a physical link.
英法海底隧道已经成为
And as the Chunnel’s been an
对整个欧盟有重要作用的基础设施
important asset to the entire European Union’s infrastructure,
日韩隧道或许也会对
a Japan-Korea tunnelmay also help establish
建立东亚共同体的计划有所帮助
some version of the East Asian Community,
这个贸易集团面向
a proposed trade bloc for East
的是东亚和东南亚国家
and Southeast Asian countries.
对于这个工程来说
It is essential for theproject to gain support
获得两国人民的支持至关重要
from the people of both countries.
而且除了未愈的历史创伤
And really, despite theunhealed wounds from the past,
日韩两国曾经以同盟的身份
Japan and South Korea have been allies
面对其它敌对国家
in the face of other hostile nations.
这样一个需要两国民众全力参与的工程
There is no better way to bring people together than to engage them
是将他们联系到一起的最佳途径
in a project requiring all their efforts.
这是三任韩国前总统的共识
This is a sentiment openly shared by three former South Korean presidents.
从某种程度上来说
At some point,
两国继续进行隧道工程的最佳方式是
the two countries will need to conclude a diplomatic accord
签署一份外交协议
on the best way toproceed with the tunnel.
因为开工期间可能会遭遇危机
And it may even take acrisis to move it forward,
比如历史上的基础设施工程
such as the case with pastinfrastructure projects
如美国横贯大陆铁路
like the US Transcontinental Railroad
在美国南北战争期间开工
launched during the American Civil War,
建设巴拿马运河时
the construction of the Panama Canal
哥伦比亚处于革命之中
amid a revolution in Colombia,
当然还有英法海底隧道的建设恰逢冷战正酣
and of course, the Channel Tunnel at theheight of the Cold War.
稳定对大型工程或许并不有利
Stability may not beconducive to mega-projects.
对于日韩隧道
For the Japan-Korea tunnel,
有人说中国在该地区日益增强的影响力
some have said China’s increasing influence in the region
或许会成为日韩两国增强合作的决定性因素
may be that determining factor for greater cooperation between Japan and South Korea.
让这个工程在政治上成为可能
It can make the projectpolitically viable. Now,
再进一步 宏伟的后续计划
moving forward, a moreambitious, ensuing plan
或许会包含连通东京 首尔 北京
may be the implementationof a rail and road link
的铁路和公路
connecting Tokyo, Seoul, and Beijing.
这个想法有一点小问题
Though for this ideathere is a small issue
路线会经过这一片土地
of the route passingthrough this bit of land.
朝鲜在这里的作用是我另一期视频的主题
While North Korea’s role in all this is a topic for another video,
目前朝韩关系缓和 可能会让这一想法更接近现实
the current easing of tensions may just be nudging this closer to reality.
甚至为从东京到伦敦 以英法海底隧道为终点的
This could even set the stage for a trans-Eurasian route from Tokyo to London,
横贯欧亚交通线路创造条件
neatly book ended by The Chunnel.
或许终有一天会建成连通全球的公路
And perhaps, ultimately, one day, connecting to a trans-global highway.
建设附加的隧道和桥梁
The construction ofadditional tunnels and bridges
对这个宏伟蓝图来说是必要一步
will be necessary for this grand vision.
而且 需要对关于人类交通 工程和基础设施体系
And fluid understanding of the laws of physics
产生有利或不利影响
that both limit and enable the framework
的物理定律理解自如
of human transportation engineering and infrastructure will be required.
如果你想明白这背后的科学道理
If you want to understandthe science behind this,
有真正的了解 那就需要
and I mean really understandit, then that will involve
知道不同的桥梁类型
knowing concepts like thedifference between bridge types,
交通拥堵增加还是减少交通流量
whether traffic jams move with or against the flow of traffic,
以及这种结构
and whether structures like these
最终会崩塌 还是保持平衡
are doomed to crumble or stabilize.
虽然我们给大家尽量讲解亚洲
As much as we love explaining about Asia
和我们周围的世界
and the world around us,
但最好的方法还是自学
the best way to learn is by doing it yourself.
Brilliant是一个题目求解网站
Brilliant is a problem-solving website
通过一些设计有趣的
that teaches you to think like a scientist
交互测试和课程
through interactive quizzes and courses
可以教你像科学家一样思考
that are designed to be interesting.
和我们的视频很像 他们将一个问题
Much like our videos, they take a problem,
分解成小段
break them up into bite sized pieces,
每一部分以清晰的逻辑呈现
present clear logic in each part,
希望我们也做到了这一点
hopefully that’s something we did too,
再形成有趣的结论
and then build back up to an exciting conclusion.
在brilliant.org/KentoBento
By going to brilliant.org/KentoBento
你可以免费开始学习
you can get started for free.
如果你是用下方链接
And if you’re one of the first 200 people
注册的前200人
to sign up with the link below,
可以获得20%的网站付费订阅折扣
you will receive 20 % off your premium subscription.
网站引人入胜
It’s an incredibly engaging website,
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视频概述

日韩隧道计划的历史与未来

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视频来源

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=EOyr04eMYuU

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