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为什么说憋尿对身体是有害的

Is it bad to hold your pee? - Heba Shaheed

开始有一点不舒服了
It begins with a bit of discomfort
过了一会儿 感觉更强烈 忍不住了
and soon becomes a pressing sensation that’s impossible to ignore.
最后 满脑子想的都是我要“小便”
Finally, it’s all you can think about,
简直要绝望了
and out of sheer desperation,
狂奔进卫生间 直到“奥~爽”
you go on a hunt for a bathroom until “ahh.”
人们每天要小便4到6次
Humans should urinate at least four to six times a day,
但是有时候 现代生活压力迫使我们不得不憋尿
but occasionally, the pressures of modern life forces us to clench and hold it in.
多么坏的习惯 我们的身体能忍多长时间
How bad is this habit, and how long can our bodies withstand it?
答案就在骨盆内的膀胱
The answers lie in the workings of the bladder,
和下面的一个卵形囊状物里
and oval pouch that sits inside the pelvis.
围绕在这个结构周围的是一些其它器官
Surrounding this structure are several other organs
它们共同组成了泌尿系统
that together make up the whole urinary system.
两个肾脏
Two kidneys,
两个输尿管
two ureters,
两个尿道括约肌
two urethral sphincters,
和一个尿道
and a urethra.
不断从肾脏滴下的淡黄色液体就是尿
Constantly trickling down from the kidneys is the yellowish liquid known as urine.
肾脏把水和身体产生的废物混合而产生尿
The kidneys make urine from a mix of water and the body’s waste products,
将多余的液体排泄出去的肌肉管被称为输尿管
funneling the unwanted fluid into two muscular tubes called ureters.
它们把尿液往下输送到一个中空器官——膀胱
These carry it downward into the hollow organ known as the bladder.
膀胱壁由三层组织构成 这些组织被称为逼尿肌
This organ’s muscular wall is made of tissue called detrusor muscle
放松就是膀胱允许膀胱壁像气球一样膨胀起来
which relaxes as the bladder fills allowing it to inflate like a balloon.
随着膀胱变满 逼尿肌收缩
As the bladder gets full, the detrusor contracts.
内部尿道括约肌无意识的自动打开
The internal urethral sphincter automatically and involuntarily opens,
然后释放尿液
and the urine is released.
嗖的一声冲出来 流畅的进入尿道
Whooshing downwards, the fluid enters the urethra
然后在外部尿道括约肌外突然停住
and stops short at the external urethral sphincter.
就像一个水龙头
This works like a tap.
当你想等会儿小便时 你就关着括约肌
When you want to delay urinating, you keep the sphincter closed.
你想小便时 你可以自愿打开尿道的大门
When you want to release it, you can voluntarily open the flood gates.
但你如何感受到膀胱已经满了
But how do you sense your bladder’s fullness
也就是说 你知道什么时候该去小便?
so you know when to pee?
在逼尿肌内部有百万个弹力层
Inside the layers of detrusor muscles are millions of stretch receptors
膀胱满时它们能感应到
that get triggered as the bladder fills.
它们沿着你的神经脊髓地区发送信号
They send signals along your nerves to the sacral region in your spinal cord.
然后再反射信号给膀胱
A reflex signal travels back to your bladder,
让逼尿肌轻微收缩
making the detrusor muscle contract slightly
加大膀胱的压力 所以你知道膀胱被填满了
and increasing the bladder’s pressure so you’re aware that it’s filling up.
同时,外部括约肌打开
Simultaneously, the internal urethral sphincter opens.
这就是所谓的排尿反射
This is called the micturition reflex.
不便排尿时 大脑会反抗尿意
The brain can counter it if it’s not a good time to urinate
通过发送另一个信号去收缩外部括约肌
by sending another signal to contract the external urethral sphincter.
膀胱里有大约150到200毫升尿液时
With about 150 to 200 milliliters of urine inside of it,
膀胱内空间还很大
the bladder’s muscular wall is stretched enough
所以你只是感觉到有尿液在里面
for you to sense that there’s urine within.
当尿量达到400~500毫升时 膀胱内压上升 让我们不舒服
At about 400 to 500 milliliters, the pressure becomes uncomfortable.
膀胱可以继续膨胀 但是集中在一点上
The bladder can go on stretching, but only to a point.
尿量超过1000毫升时 膀胱就会爆发
Above 1,000 milliliters, it may burst.
大部分人可能会尿失禁
Most people would lose bladder control before this happens,
但是这非常罕见
but in very rare cases,
比如 当一个人不能感受到尿意时
such as when as a person can’t sense the need to urinate,
膀胱可能会破裂 很痛苦 而且需要外科手术修复
the pouch can rupture painfully requiring surgery to fix.
但一般情况下
But under normal circumstances,
你可以自主控制排尿 不用排尿反射
your decision to urinate stops the brain’s signal to the external urethral sphincter,
使他放松 膀胱放空
causing it to relax and the bladder to empty.
尿道外括约肌是盆底的肌肉之一
The external urethral sphincter is one of the muscles of the pelvic floor,
为尿道和膀胱颈提供支持
and it provides support to the urethra and bladder neck.
拥有这些盆底肌肉 我们很幸运
It’s lucky we have these pelvic floor muscles
因为一些系统上的压力 比如咳嗽
because placing pressure on the system by coughing,
打喷嚏
sneezing,

laughing,
或者跳动都会导致膀胱内尿液的泄露
or jumping could cause bladder leakage.
相反 盆底的肌肉保持密封
Instead, the pelvic floor muscles keep the region sealed
直到你准备好 小便
until you’re ready to go.
但 因为憋尿时间太长
But holding it in for too long,
迫使你的尿速太快
forcing out your urine too fast,
或者小便时没有适当的物理支撑
or urinating without proper physical support
随着时间的推移 削弱或超负荷使用这些盆底肌肉
may over time weaken or overwork that muscular sling.
会导致盆底的过分活跃
That can lead to an overactive pelvic floor,
膀胱疼痛
bladder pain,
尿频
urgency,
或尿失禁
or urinary incontinence.
因此 为了你的长期健康
So in the interest of long-term health,
憋尿并不是个好主意
it’s not a great habit to hold your pee.
但短期内 你的身体和大脑至少能让你忍住尿意
But in the short term, at least, your body and brain have got you covered,
所以 找个方便的时间 愉快的释放它吧(小便)
so you can conveniently choose your moment of sweet release.

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视频来源

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Ze4Qmpq48AQ

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