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身高完全由基因决定吗 – 译学馆
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身高完全由基因决定吗

Is Height All In Our Genes?

嘿 机智的小伙伴们 我是Joe
Hey smart people, Joe here.
我是巨人的后裔
I’m a descendant of giants,
我有一位祖父 一位父亲 两位叔叔
with a grandfather, dad, two uncles,
和一位姑姑 他们都超过6英尺高
and an aunt all towering over 6 feet tall.
我们是那种你们不想在Bon Jovi的音乐会上
We are the people you don’t want to stand behind
站在我们身后的人
at a Bon Jovi concert, but we’re
但我们也是可以从高处取东西给你们的人
also the people who can get that thing off the top shelf for you.
6英尺3英寸高
At 6’3 ”,
我居然是家族中矮小的一个
I turned out to be the short one in the family.
现在我有了个儿子
Now that I have a son myself,
我想知道他是否会是个高个子
I’m wondering if he’s going to be tall too.
身高是不是只由基因决定
Is height only written in our genes
或者一些其他的因素也决定着我们的身高
or is there something else that determines how tall we get?
[开始]
[OPEN]
目前 美国女性的平均身高
These days, the average American woman is
大约是5英尺4英寸 然而
about five foot four, while the average Joe
美国男性的平均身高大约是5英尺9英寸
American male is about five foot nine.
但是 人类的身高在几个世纪以来一直起伏不定
But… human height has had its ups and downs over the centuries.
三百万年前 我们的祖先南猿人只有4英尺高
Three million years ago, our ancestor Australopithecus only stood about four feet tall.
一百五十万年后 直立人
One-and-a-half million years later, Homo erectus,
第一类使用复杂工具的早期人
the first early human to use complex tools,
高达5英尺7英寸
reached up to five foot seven.
到了石器时代
And by the Stone Age,
在欧洲旧石器时代晚期狩猎采集的人们
men of the Gravettian hunter-gatherer culture in Europe stood at
平均身高达到了6英尺
an average of 6 feet.
因为种种原因 我们现有的历史资料大多都是有关男性的身高
Most of the historical data we have is for male height, because… reasons.
然后农业开始发展
Then agriculture happened.
当欧洲人偏向低蛋白
When Europeans switched to a lower-protein,
高纤维的饮食时 男性的平均身高
higher-grain diet, men gradually lost 8 inches
逐渐降低了8英寸
in height, on average.
然后他们维持了数千年这样的状态
And they stayed that way for thousands ofyears.
直到十八世纪左右
By the time the 18th century rolled around,
欧洲人的平均身高只有
the average European man was only five foot
5英尺5英寸高
five inches tall.
但是当那些欧洲人移民到美国后
But when those Europeans emigrated to America,
他们的小孩平均身高长到了5英尺8英寸
their kids grew up to be five foot eight inches tall on average.
在仅一代人中 身高突飞猛进
A huge jump in just a generation.
工业革命期间 因为城市拥挤的环境和疾病
During the Industrial Revolution heights took a dip
人们的身高反而下降了一点点
due to urban crowding and disease,
但不久后 人类身高持续高速增长到至今
but soon after, the human height boom continued and continues today.
过去几世纪的每十年里
Every decade for the past couple
欧洲人身高平均高了半英寸
centuries Europeans have grown an average of about half an inch.
目前 荷兰人是世界上最高的人
Today, Dutch men are the tallest people in the world,
他们的平均身高也只刚过六尺
with an average height of just over 6 feet –
追上八千年前的旧石器时代的人
back to where those Gravettians started 8 millennia ago.
这些身高的波动
These fluctuations of height,
有时候只发生在一代人身上 表示我们的环境
sometimes within a single generation, show that our environment
很大程度上影响着我们的身高
determines a big part of how tall we are.
但是不同国家 不同家庭的人
But people in different regions, and different families,
向我们表明身高还有基因因素
show us that height has genetic causes too.
所以哪个因素起更大的作用呢?
So which has a bigger role,
自然环境还是营养?
nature or nurture?
在十九世纪早期
In the early 19th century,
科学家首次发现人类身高与财富的关联性
scientists first noticed a correlation between people’s heights and their wealth
贫穷家庭出身的人普遍比富裕家庭出身的人矮
– people from poor backgrounds tended to be shorter than people who were more well-off.
很多学者在当时认为 身形高大是一个人“高贵”的外在象征
Instead of asking whether someone’s upbringing might influence their height,
而不去考虑 家庭是否可能影响他们的身高
many scholars at the time decided tallness was a physical mark of “superior” humans.
弗朗西斯·高尔顿 因后来推广优生学而声名狼藉
Francis Galton – who would later become infamous for popularizing eugenics –
是第一个通过大规模数据系统研究身高的科学家
was the first scientist to conduct a large-scale, systematic study of height.
他精确地测量了几千人的身高
He precisely measured the height of thousands of people
作为科学研究的一部分 向人们展示
as part of a sort of scientific side show.
但高尔顿的研究结果让人疑惑
But Galton’s results were confusing.
父母的身高通常无法预测他们孩子的身高
Parents’ heights often didn’t predictthe heights of their kids.
另一方面 同胞兄弟姐妹的身高却非常接近
The heights of siblings on the other hand,were much closer.
这启发了科学家们研究双胞胎的身高
This inspired scientists to look at heightin twins.
研究双胞胎可以教授我们大量关于
Studying twins can teach us a ton
基因和环境如何影响人类性状的知识
about how genes and environments influence human attributes.
异卵双胞胎在基因差异上
Fraternal twins can be as different genetically as any other pair
与其他兄弟姐妹一样
of siblings, with the added
仅仅只是年纪相同而已
advantage of being exactly the same age.
同卵双胞胎的基因一模一样
Identical twins are genetically, well, identical.
所以我们可以看到有多少基因遗传最终是不同的
So we can see how much genetic carbon copies end up differing.
通过出生后被隔离的双胞胎
And twins separated at birth offer a window
我们便可以观察 相同基因的不同个体
into what happens when genetically identical
在不同环境成长的过程
individuals grow up in very different environments.
结果表明双胞胎 尤其是同卵双胞胎
Turns out that twins, especially identical twins,
倾向于身高接近
tend to be close in height –
但却不是完全一样
but not exactly the same.
双胞胎研究 像一部历史
Twin studies, like history,
向我们展现了基因只能作为一部分因素
show us genes can only be part of the story when it comes
来影响身高
to height.
那这一部分有多大呢
So how big a part?
在2007年 科学家们对比了超过11000对
In 2007, scientists compared height and DNA
兄弟姐妹的身高和基因
between more than 11,000 pairs of siblings
结果发现 在人类中
and found that, across humans,
遗传学可以解释86%的身高差异
86 % of height’s variation can be explained by genetics.
对于性状而言 这一占比十分高
As traits go, this is very high;
作为比较 遗传学只能解释26%左撇子的原因
for comparison, genetics only explains about 26 % of left-handedness.
所以 我们应该也可以根据DNA
So we should be able to predict a
去预测一个人的身高 对吗
person’s height from his or her DNA right?
没那么容易
Not so fast.
我们知道基因有极大的差异 不仅仅针对某一基因
We know genes make a huge difference, justnot which genes.
至今 科学家已经确认了大约有800个影响身高的基因
So far, scientists have identified about 800 genes that influence height,
但它们中的大多数
but many of them
对身高只有细微的影响
only make a tiny contribution.
比如HGMA2 一个关系到身高的基因
Take HGMA2, one of the first genes linkedto height.
里面有一份“高”基因译本
Having one copy of the “tall”
只能使人“长高”1/8英寸
version only “lifts” a person about an eighth of an inch,
所以即使你从你父母身上都继承了这个基因
so even if you inherit a copy from both of your parents,
你也最多只能长高1/4英寸
that still only gains you a quarter of an inch at most.
所有800个已知道的身高基因
Altogether, the 800 height genes we know
只能解释人类27%的身高不同是如何形成的
of can only explain 27 % of how height varies between people.
肯定还有许多我们未知的基因影响着我们的身高
There’s clearly lots of genetic influencewe don’t understand.
或许是某些基因的叠加影响效果超乎我们预期
Maybe the effects of some genes add up in unexpected ways –
基因之间可能以组合的方式相互作用影响
genes may interact in combinations,
4种基因和另4种基因得到16种组合 而不是8种组合
where four and four makes sixteen, not eight.
假设我们能研究地球上70亿人的基因
If we could just study the DNA of all the 7 billion people on Earth,
也许我们能找到 所有影响身高的基因
maybe we would find all the genes that affect height.
亦或者我们会发现科学家们高估了基因的贡献
Or maybe we’d find that scientists have overestimated the contribution of genetics?
因为我们的生活环境 有健康和饮食因素
Because our environment, defined by health and diet,
肯定也作用于我们的身高
certainly has a hand in shaping our height.
当今的韩国人
South Koreans today are more
比朝鲜人高了一英寸 尽管他们之间遗传差异很小
than an inch taller than North Koreans, despite minimal genetic differences.
很显然 一个人在孩童时期的饮食
Clearly, one’s diet during childhood,
是决定成年时身高的关键因素
is a crucial in determining adult height.
这就是为什么人类在农耕时期身高降低
That’s why humans shrank with the switch to agriculture
而工业革命时期身高增长
and again during the Industrial Revolution.
时至今日 大多数科学家认可基因与营养共同决定了我们的身高
Today, most scientists agree that nature and nurture combine to shape our height.
有些甚至提出把身高定义为“全基因”性状
Some even propose calling height an” omni genic” trait –
这类性状几乎是我们所有基因 共同影响的结果
one that nearly all our genes influence in some way.
如今 唯一一个能知道你最终身高
For now, the only surefire way to know
的有效方法就是――等着看
how tall you’ll end up… is just to wait and see.
求知若渴!
Stay curious!

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视频概述

人类的身高是如何变化的?基因和环境又是如何影响我们身高的?我们对基因了解多少?观看本视频,为你一一解答。

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视频来源

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