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玻璃是液体吗? – 译学馆
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玻璃是液体吗?

Is Glass a Liquid?

1994年一场很大的地震袭击了LA的北岭市海港
In 1994, a massive earthquake shook the northridge suburb of Los Angeles, killing
造成57人死亡 超过5000人受伤 造成损失超过二十
57 people and injuring over 5,000. The cost of damages was in excess of twenty
亿美元 这样的地震让我们思考
billion dollars. It’s earthquakes like this one that make us question just how
我们脚下的土地到底有多坚硬 坚硬意味着什么
solid is the earth beneath our feet and what does it mean to be solid anyway.
乍一看沥青像是固体 并非这样
At first glance, pitch looks like a solid but it’s not is actually a liquid at
实际上室温下是粘稠的液体黏性是一个液体流动的衡量单位
room temperature just a very viscous one. Viscosity is a measure of resistance to
我们认为的 橄榄油的黏度
flow, what we often think of as the thickness of a liquid. Olive oil is
约是水的100倍蜂蜜是水黏度的10,000倍
nearly a hundred times more viscous than water, and honey is about a hundred times
蜂蜜是水黏度的10,000倍
more viscous than that.
同时 沥青的黏度是水黏度的2.3亿倍
Meanwhile, pitch has a viscosity two hundred and thirty billion times that of
这是澳大利亚昆士兰大学的一个沥青实验
water. At the University of Queensland in Australia, pitch is the subject of the
也是世界上进行实践最长的实验
world’s longest-running lab experiment, and it still going to this day.
这堆沥青自1927年放在漏斗里面直到现在将近90年
Back in 1927, this glob of pitch was placed into a funnel, and ever since then in nearly 90
只滴下了9滴 大概是十年一滴
years, it has produced only nine drips roughly 10 decade, and no one has ever
并且没有人在那个房间里看到液体落下的那一刻 尽管前保管人
been in the room to see a drop fall. Though in 1988, the former custodian of
John在1988年几乎要看到有液滴要落下了
the experiment, John Main Stone came very close to observing a drip fall except he
但是 他出去装了杯茶就把这一刻给错过了
stepped out of the room for just a few minutes to get a cup of tea.
现在你可以通过这个链接实时地看到这个实验
Now you can actually watch this experiment alive. There’s a link in the
但自从上一滴在2014年落下之后 你可能要等好一会
description but since the last drop happen in 2014, I think you’ll probably
另外一个你可能听说过的粘稠液体是玻璃
be waiting a while. Another substance you may have heard is a very viscous liquid is
如果你看着旧教堂的彩色玻璃窗你可能会发现
glass. If you look at the stained glass windows of old churches, you will find
底部的油彩一定比上面的要厚
the bottom of the pain is decidedly thicker than the top and that’s because
难道是因为玻璃在过去的时间里向下流动?其实不是这样的
the glass has been flowing down over centuries. Actually, no, it hasn’t.
即使透镜玻璃的细微变化也会影响光学成像,但当我们透过古老的望远镜看时
You know, we’ve looked at old telescopes where the optics is very sensitive to
发现即便历经上百年它们依然表现完美
slight shifts in the lens glass. We find they still work perfectly after hundreds
对有上千年历史的旧窗户进行研究,
of years, plus studies of thousand year old windows find no real evidence of
发现没有证据证明它们发生了流动。事实不过是由于难以制造出厚度均匀的玻璃,
flow. Through truth is it is just very difficult to make glass of uniform
所以在千年前一开始装玻璃时
thickness and so when the glass was originally installed thousands of years
他们将最厚的部分装在底下。
ago, they would install the thickest part towards the bottom. The lead actually has
而铅的粘度比玻璃低
a lower viscosity than the glass, so if the glass and even thinking a little bit,
那么地上应该已经出现一滩滩铅了。
then the lead should be a puddle on the floor by now.
玻璃的不同寻常在于它是一种非晶固体
Glass is unusual in that it’s an amorphous solid, meaning that the silica
不像规则晶格,玻璃中的硅分子是不规则分布的
molecules are not regularly arranged as in our regular crystalline lattice.
相反,他们的排列杂乱无章
Instead they’re all in a jungle, and this is because the glasses cool down so
因为玻璃从液体冷却到固体的速度太快
quickly from the liquid state to the solid-state, the molecules don’t have
分子还来不及排列成规则的晶体结构
time to arrange themselves in tonight’s regular crystal structure, but what makes
但是固体区别于液体的地方在于
something a solid rather than a liquid is that all of the atoms or molecules
固体所有原子和分子都以化学的方式紧紧结合在一起
are so strongly bonded together chemically that they can’t slide past
以至于它们之间无法互相滑动。水、所有的油或沥青的分子能互相滑动
each other. So in water or all of oil or pitch, the molecules can slide past each
但室温下的玻璃不行。那么地球内部又是怎么样的呢?
other, but in glass at room temperature, they can’t. So what about the interior of
地球的地壳下面是地幔
the earth beneath. The earth’s crust is the mantle,
地幔造成板块构造以及地震。它是固体还是液体呢?
which is responsible for plate tectonics and therefore earthquakes. Is it a solid
显然我们无法直接观察地幔
or liquid we can obviously never observed the mantle directly, but when we
但当我们看到从地下出来的物质是滚烫的红色石头,熔岩时
do see material come out from underground heat is red hot rock you
你可能猜测地幔是由类似的融化岩浆,这种滚烫的液体岩石组成
might be imagining that the mantle isvery similar made up of this molten
这个听着很有道理,因为液体才能流动
magma hot liquid rock and that wouldmake sense because in order for it to
实际这是错的,地幔是固体
flow it must be a liquid right actuallywrong the mantle is a solid under all
在如此高压力下,即便在极高温度下,地幔仍然保持固体状态
that pressure even though it’s a veryhigh temperature it remains in the solid
我们知道地幔是固体,因为地震横波可以沿着地幔传播
state and we know the mantle is solidbecause shear waves from earthquakes can
波不能在像地球外核铁水这样的液体中传播
actually propagate through the mantlethese waves cannot propagate through
因为液体侧面发生剪切或摩擦时,
liquid like the molten iron of Earth’souter core because liquids flow in
流动状态会随之变化
response to being sheared or rubbedsideways and as a result we can see the
因此我们会发现,当测量地球另一边地震产生的横波时,液态外核处有影区
shadow of the liquid outer core bymeasuring seismic waves from an
但这些岩石究竟是怎么流动的
earthquake on the other side of theworld but how exactly does this solid
答案就在于晶体不是完美的
rock flow with the answer lies in thefact that crystals aren’t perfect
晶体中会有原子缺失
there may be a missing atom here orthere and under the high pressures in
在地幔的高压下,相邻的原子会跳过去填充间隙
the mantle sometimes a neighboring atomwill pop in to fill that gap now from a
在人类看来,这种迁移要花很长时间才有显著的效果
human perspective it takes a very longtime for this to have a noticeable
但从地球的角度来看,这个转瞬之间就发生了
effect but from the earth perspective ithappens in no time at all
地幔的粘度比玻璃要大好几个数量级
the viscosity of the mantle is similarto that of glass to several orders of
只有从地质时间尺度来看地幔才表现的像液体
magnitude greater so it is really onlyover these geological timescales that
所以沥青这种液体可以流动得极慢就像固体一样
the mantle is fluid like at all so pitcha liquid can flow so slowly as to seem
然而如果你等待的足够长的话,地球的地幔作为固体却表现得像液体
like a solid whereas the Earth’s mantlea solid behaves like a fluid if you just
美国著名地质学家Grove Karla Gilbert曾经说过
wait long enough as the famous Americangeologist Grove Karla Gilbert once said
在我看来,困难都是虚构不真实的
to my mind it appears that thedifficulty is only imaginary and not
刚性和弹性不是绝对的而是相对的
real rigidity and plasticity are notabsolute terms but relative and all
所有固体实际上既是刚性又具有弹性
solids are in fact both rigid andplastic
当碰上极大的质量和作用力时,两者之间的区别就不再显著
when great masses and great forces areinvolved the distinction loses value
有时候我们自己定义的刚性只会引入误解和对粘性的误区
sometimes the rigid definitions wecreate for ourselves can introduce
错误的认为地球的核是
misconceptions or viscous rumors likethe idea that the core of the earth is a
一个大岩浆球,但愿我们在看待液体和固体这个问题上更灵活点
giant ball of magma if only we couldthink about liquids and solids a little
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17 eaves and it’s about a massivecatastrophe that threatens the earth I
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think if you’re into science you willreally enjoy it and you can actually
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download this book for free by going toaudible.com / merit a scene or you can
或是其他你感兴趣的书
pick any other book of your choosing fora one month free trial so I really wanna
感谢各位对我的支持,谢谢观赏
thank you for supporting me and I wantto thank you for watching and if you
假如你还没有注册加入我的邮件清单
haven’t signed up for my mailing listyet that is something you should
你绝对值得一试,你可以点击这张卡片
probably do it you can click on thiscard here and go over to very
访问veritasium.com,那里我很快会发布一些超酷的东西
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如果你还没看过就来看一下吧。再见!
coming up very soon so check it out ifyou haven’t already by

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