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DNA是未来的数据储存器吗

Is DNA the future of data storage? - Leo Bear-McGuinness

假设现在发生了一场大灾难 这次它把人类又送回到了远古石器时代
Let’s say there’s a disaster that sends humanity back to the Stone Age.
我们的知识 历史还能留存下来吗?
Can our knowledge and history survive?
印刷纸质版的书籍会降解掉
The printed page will decompose.
硬盘储存也会变坏
Hard drive storage will deteriorate.
甚至连石头最后也会粉碎
Even stones will eventually crumble.
但我们体内的某些东西或许可以逃过这些物理限制因素
But we might have something inside us that can outlast these physical limitations:
脱氧核糖核酸(DNA)
deoxyribonucleic acid.
DNA储存着生物信息
DNA already stores our biological information.
从瞳色到肤色 它提供整个人体生物程序
>From eye color to skin tone, it programs our entire bodies.
DNA由四种碱基构成
DNA is made of four organic bases:
腺嘌呤
adenine,
鸟嘌呤
guanine,
胞嘧啶
cytosine,
还有胸腺嘧啶
and thymine,
简称为 A G C T
or A, G, C, and T.
这些碱基序列三个一组 称为密码子
The specific sequence of these bases into groups of three, known as codons,
它编码细胞基因表达人类所需的蛋白质
gives our cells instructions to make each of the proteins in our bodies.
但这种编码还可以用做其它事情
But this code can be used for other things, too,
比如 密码
like secret messages.
1999年 纽约科学家用64个DNA密码子
In 1999, scientists in New York created an alphabet
创立了一种字母表
in which each of the 64 possible DNA codons
每个密码子代表一个字母 数字 或语法符号
substituted for a specific letter, number, or grammar symbol.
他们把20字的信息写成一条DNA长段
They spliced a 22-character message into a long strand of DNA
并且用特殊的基因标记把信息包围起来
and surrounded it with specific genetic markers.
接着把这段DNA藏进信里
They then hid the DNA over a period in a type-written letter
这封信里只有一个小污点 表明其位置
with only a small smudge to give the location away.
再把信寄给自己
They mailed the letter back to themselves.
然后他们拆开信找那段DNA
Then they examined the letter looking for the DNA strand.
一旦确定了那段DNA 他们能找到那个基因标记
Once the DNA strand was located, they found the genetic markers.
然后 他们把这段DNA排序 破译信息
Then, they sequenced the DNA and successfully decoded the message.
很快 人们发现DNA密码学显然
It soon became obvious that DNA cryptography
能编码更多 不仅仅是短信
could code for much more than simple text.
通过把1和0的二进制编码转化成DNA密码子
By translating the 1’s and 0’s of binary code into DNA codons,
数字数据可以编码为合成DNA
digital data could be programmed into synthetic DNA,
再解码回初级形式
then decoded back into its original form.
2012年 英国科学家将739个千字节
In 2012, UK scientists encoded 739 kilobytes of computer files
计算机文件编码进DNA链
into DNA strands,
包括所有莎士比亚154首十四行诗
including all 154 Shakespeare sonnets
还有马丁·路德·金的“我有一个梦想”演讲摘录
and an excerpt from Martin Luther King’s “I Have a Dream” speech.
四年后 微软公司和华盛顿大学的研究人员
And four years later, researchers at Microsoft and the University of Washington
打破了那项记录
broke that record.
他们用二进制编码了内容庞大 近200百万字节数据
They used binary coding to capture a whopping 200 megabytes of data,
包括世界人权宣言
including the Universal Declaration of Human Rights
还有高清OK Go音乐视频
and a high-def OK Go music video,
全部都在DNA链字符串中
all in strings of DNA.
就储存容量而言
As far as storage capacity goes,
DNA更胜一筹 因为它能用超少的空间
DNA stands out because of the surprising amount of information it can hold
储存很庞大的信息
in so little space.
目前DNA储存容量的理论值很高
The current theoretical limit of DNA’S storage capacity is so high
相当于把1亿个高清电影放进一块小橡皮擦中
that you could fit 100 million HD movies on a pencil eraser.
可以预想某天我们可以
It’s even conceivable that one day we could fit all of the information
把网上现存所有信息
currently on the Internet
都放到一个鞋盒子大小的空间里去
into the space of a shoe box.
而且电脑和磁带以及磁盘的信息
Also, computers and the magnetic tape and discs that their information is stored on
在退化无效前最多只能储存数十年
only last for a few decades, at most, before degrading and becoming unreliable.
同时 DNA却有500年的半衰期
Meanwhile, DNA has a half-life of 500 years,
就是说DNA断裂键要500年的时间
meaning that’s how long it takes for half of its bonds to break.
而且如果是在寒冷 黑暗的环境中
And if left in a cold and dark environment,
DNA大概能保存几十万年
DNA could potentially last for hundreds of thousands of years.
如果几十万年还不够长
And if that isn’t long enough,
科学家们尝试了人工合成自动复制再生的DNA实验
scientists experimented with having synthetic DNA auto-reproduce.
在合成DNA链后
After creating their own strands of DNA
能拼出一句儿歌“小小世界”
that spelled out the lyrics to the children’s song “It’s a Small World,”
他们把这句歌词编码进细菌基因组 该细菌取名为科南
they placed them into the genome of a microbe nicknamed Conan the Bacterium.
科南属于厌氧细菌
Conan belongs to a species which can survive in a vacuum,
在真空无水条件下可存活6年
or without water, for six years,
而且暴露在1000倍放射性辐射量下仍完好无损
or come out unscathed after being exposed to a dose of radiation
而这种辐射量能杀死一个人
1,000 times that which would kill a human.
根据这个实验
According to the experiment,
这种细菌复制繁殖至少100代也不会丢失遗传信息
the bacterium was able to reproduce at least 100 generations without data loss.
理论上 如果生物体如果有多余的复制信息
Theoretically, if the organism had redundant copies of the information
那多余的信息可被用于自动更正错误
that could be used to automatically correct mistakes,
而携带的信息保存的甚至更久
the information could stay preserved even longer.
所以 某天 你们也许能在自家后院创造出
So one day, you might be able to create a living, growing, knowledge archive
一种有生命力 能不断生长的知识档案
in your own backyard,
而且它的种子也许能承载你的家族历史
and its seeds might carry your family’s history,
以及世界政治 历史的沧桑剧变
a detailed breakdown of the world’s political upheavals,
或把人类知识集合为智慧森林 跨越洲际
or the sum of humanity’s knowledge into forests and across continents.
或许 甚至可以到达宇宙更深处
Perhaps even into the far reaches of space.
虽然有天我们终会消亡 但我们的遗产也许还会存在
Though we might one day disappear, perhaps our legacy can still live on,
如果有人想要找到它的话
if anyone would think to find it.
喜欢这节课吗?
Did you enjoy the lesson?
如果喜欢 请访问PATREON.COM/TEDED
If so, please consider supporting our noun-profitting mission
支持我们的非营利团队
Let’s see there are a disaster

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视频概述

DNA有可能成为人类未来的有生命储存器

听录译者

收集自网络

翻译译者

海绵

审核员

审核团GK

视频来源

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=r8qWc9X4f6k

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