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资本主义是否对你有害?|8-bit哲学第一季 – 译学馆
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资本主义是否对你有害?|8-bit哲学第一季

Is Capitalism Bad For You? – 8-Bit Philosophy

资本主义对你有害吗?
Is Capitalism bad for you?
想像自己是个正在地里拔萝卜的劳动者
Picture yourself as a laborer in a field picking turnips.
你被迫要求增加产量
You are compelled to increase production.
也许你担心能否保住你的工作
Perhaps you are worried about keeping your job.
以及其他人是否比你更用功
Perhaps you are worried that other people are working harder than you.
重要的是 你必须拔更多的萝卜
The important thing is this: you have to pick more turnips.
不论如何也不能停下来休息
You can’t stop now… no matter what.
这种焦虑源自何处呢?
Where might this anxiety come from?
对于社会学家马克思·韦伯来说
For sociologist Karl Emil Maximilian “Max” Weber,
现代资本主义与马克思的理论不同
modern Capitalism differs from Marx’s theory
工人们不仅仅被简单地边缘化
Workers are not simply alienated.
他们还受制于人性被剥夺的过程
They are subject to a process that strips them of their very humanity.
对韦伯来说 资本主义就像个铁笼子
For Weber Capitalism is an iron cage
把工人们暴露在无法适应的紧张状态之中
that exposes workers to incapacitating anxiety.
一切都是为了积累利润
All for the accumulation of profit.
著于1904 新教伦理与资本主义精神
Written in 1904, The Protestant Ethic and the Spirit of Capitalism
是韦伯试对 美式资本主义是从一套
is Weber’s attempt to explicate the ways that
特定的信仰中 也就是卡尔文教派中
American style Capitalism grew from a specific set of beliefs,
发展起来的解释
namely Calvinism.
新教伦理是一种对工作的号召
You see, the protestant ethic is a calling to work
是向上帝展现荣耀一种方式
a way of showing glory to god.
卡尔文主义者不是被要求工作
The Calvinist is not just called to work
而是处于害怕死后永堕地狱的压力之下
they are pressured via the fear of eternal damnation.
这必定引起一些严重的焦虑
And this has to cause some serious angst.
因受到老板的期待 工人们努力在
Beset by the expectations of a boss,
截止期前完成工作
working to finish a deadline,
苦于精打细算的生活
aching to make ends meet,
在每天奴役生活中挣扎
struggling for everyday salvation,
资本主义本身就会产生焦虑
Capitalism creates anxiety in its own right.
卡尔文教徒相信宿命论
Calvinists believed in predestination,
或是说相信 只有很少的人被上帝选中
or the idea that very few people are selected by God
有资格进入天堂的金色大门
to gain admittance to the golden gates of heaven,
然而剩下的大部分人注定要永堕地狱
while the majority of the world is condemned to hell. Forever.
为了确保救赎
In order to ensure salvation
卡尔文教徒不知疲倦地不停工作
the Calvinist worked tirelessly, endlessly,
而不为拥有财产
without lavish possessions,
因为他们的救赎就关乎于此
for their very salvation was at stake.
他们向周围的人展示
They showed their neighbors
他们凭纪律性的工作和实践而被选中
they were chosen through disciplined work and practice.
在资本主义社会的卡尔文主义压力下生活
Living with the pressures of Calvanism in a Capitalist society
使得每早起床都变得困难
makes it difficult to get up each morning
更不用说通勤
and make the morning commute.
现代的资本主义有类似的说法:
With modern Capitalism there is a similar parallel:
努力工作 你会得到回报
Work hard and you will be rewarded.
这其实是“自力更生”的准则
It is the mantra of “picking yourself up by your bootstraps.”
资本主义在卡尔文教派找到了完美的工人
With Calvinism, Capitalism found the perfect worker.
新教徒为使上帝荣耀而对职业
Protestantism’s dedication to a calling,
对需求 对工作的奉献
to the need to work for the glory of God,
创造了一个为渴望
created an environment
永恒奖励的劳动者们铺平了道路的环境
that paved the way for a work force eager for eternal reward.
随时间的推移 卡尔文主义的宗教实践:
Over time the sacred practices of Calvinsim:
努力工作 自制 具体的日常实践
hard work, self-restraint, specific routine practices,
有效率 不懒惰
efficiency, lack of idleness—
这一切都变为西方职业伦理的特征
all became the defining traits of a western work ethic.
这就是为什么美国人
It’s the reason why Americans
倾向于常工作而少休假
tend to work long hours, take fewer vacations,
午休更短且将周日留作休息时间的原因
have short lunch breaks, and reserve Sunday for rest.
这是建立在劳动者宗教原则上的
It is the secular expectations of a work force
世俗期望
founded on religious principles.
如果说过去实体的残余是幽灵的话
If ghosts are the remnants of past entities,
新教则常萦绕于现代资本主义的周围
Protestantism haunts modern Capitalism
我们生活在恐惧天罚的
We are left with the echoes of religious anxiety
宗教焦虑的阴影下
over the fear of damnation.
亲爱的观众
Well beloved viewer,
如果“自助者天助之”
if “God helps those that help themselves”
那谁来助资本主义呢?
who does modern Capitalism help?

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参考书目:《新教伦理与资本主义精神》

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视频来源

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=JvJTUZaivCI

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