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烤焦了的面包能吃吗? – 译学馆
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烤焦了的面包能吃吗?

Is Burnt Toast Really Bad for You?

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提问:烤焦的面包真的会伤害你的身体吗?
QQs: IS BURNT TOAST REALLY BAD FOR YOU?
大部分人不喜欢面包烤焦了的味道
Most people don’t really like the taste of burnt toast,
但有时 这是你的唯一选择
but sometimes, it’s your only option.
比如 手忙脚乱的准备上学或上班的早晨
Like, maybe, in your morning rush to get ready for school or work,
你给烤面包机设的时间太久了
you cranked the timer on your toaster too far,
烤出来的面包又黑又硬
and your bread popped out all black and crispy.
而你没时间再做一份面包了
You don’t have time to make more toast,
你太忙了!
you’re a busy person!
而且你真的很饿!
And you’re really hungry!
那么吃烤焦的面包到底有什么伤害?
But how risky was it to chow down on that blackened bread?
你妈妈在朋友圈的确发过《烤焦的面包诱发癌症》
Your mom did share that Facebook post about burnt toast causing cancer.
简短点回答:不会
Well, short answer: not very.
详细点回答:或许没那么严重
Long answer: probably not very.
当面包或土豆等含淀粉的食物
When starchy foods like bread or potatoes
被加热到足够高的温度时
are heated to high enough temperatures,
比如烤或煎的时候
like by baking or frying,
会发生化学反应
a chemical reaction takes place
产生一种叫做丙烯酰胺的化合物
that produces a compound called acrylamide.
很多时候 这个反应类似于美拉德反应
In many cases, the reaction is similar to,
氨基酸和糖
but distinct from, the Maillard reaction
在烹饪过程时也会让食物变成棕色
between amino acids and sugars,
但丙烯酰胺与美拉德的产物有区别
which also causes food to brown during cooking.
在非常大的剂量下 丙烯酰胺是有毒的
In really large doses, acrylamide totally is toxic.
一些经常接触这种化学品的工人
Some industrial workers who are regularly exposed to the chemical
就遭受了神经损伤
have suffered neurological damage.
而对老鼠的实验结果也表明
And other work on rats has also shown that acrylamide
丙烯酰胺可以附着在红细胞上
could attach itself to parts of red blood cells,
最终导致DNA损伤
and ultimately damage DNA.
但所有这些情况都是丙烯酰胺用作密封剂的结果
But all of that is when acrylamide is used as a sealant,
不是烤焦面包上的副产物
not when it’s a byproduct of toasting your bread for too long.
直到2002都还没发现食物中含有这种物质
It wasn’t even until 2002 that the chemical was definitely discovered in food.
无论如何 英国食品标准局最终发布建议
Regardless, the UK’s Food Standard Agency eventually recommended
人们应该尽量避免食用焦化的淀粉
that people should avoid eating singed starches
尽管他们承认 目前没有足够的证据
even though they acknowledged they didn’t have enough scientific evidence
表明这种食物对身体健康有多大伤害
to conclude exactly how dangerous these foods were for humans.
另外国际癌症研究机构
And the International Agency for Research on Cancer
也把丙烯酰胺列入“可能致癌的物质”
also listed acrylamide as a “probable carcinogen”.
但鉴于国际癌症研究机构还列出了其他一些致癌物质
But given that IARC also lists a bunch of other stuff as carcinogens,
包括从事理发师职业和热饮
including working as a hairdresser and hot drinks,
所以它没有听上去那么可怕
it’s not as scary as it sounds.
截至到目前 根据研究
So far, based on the research,
看起来丙烯酰胺不太可能导致人类癌症
it looks like acrylamide isn’t very likely to cause cancer in humans.
记得刚说的工人们吗?
Remember those industrial workers?
神经损伤是非常严重的一件事
While neurological damage is very much not a good thing,
对工人们的研究还发现
studies of that group have also found
除了只在那些暴露最严重的工人身上
no increased risk of cancer in almost all organs,
增加胰腺癌的风险
except for pancreatic cancer
它并不会增加任何其他器官癌变风险
and only in the most heavily exposed workers.
在2015年 针对32项研究的综合分析
In 2015, a meta-analysis of 32 studies
都没发现丙烯酰胺与多种癌症(包括胰腺癌)
was also unable to find any causal link between acrylamide
风险增加之间存在任何因果关系
and an increased risk for a variety of cancers… including pancreatic.
虽然一些研究显示
And while some studies do show
肾脏和卵巢癌的风险增加了
an increased risk in kidney and ovarian cancer,
但有很多其他研究驳斥了这一结果
there are plenty others that contradict them.
关于丙烯酰胺的这些研究 有一个问题是
One of the problems with these studies looking at acrylamide is that
与人类每天生活中接触到的剂量相比
the animals used are exposed to way more of the chemical
受试动物解接触的剂量更多
than any human ever would be in day-to-day life.
这就好比你需要连续2年每天吃75公斤薯条
Like, you’d need to eat 75 kilograms of fries every day for 2 years
才能达到实验中大鼠接受的剂量
to be comparable to one study done in rats.
这么多薯条听起来不可思议 对吧
And while all those fries do sound amazing,
所以大鼠的情况不会在你身上重现
it’s just not going to happen.
所以 偶尔吃烤焦的面包不会害死你
So, eating the occasional burnt piece of toast isn’t going to kill you.
如果你希望自己身体健康
If you’re worried about your health,
你可以随时找医生咨询
you can always talk to your doctor
关注饮食健康的事情
and focus on things like having a healthy diet
多做运动
and getting some exercise.
因为即使炸薯条损害了你的健康
Because if french fries are going to kill you,
很有可能也不是因为丙烯酰胺
it’s probably not the acrylamide…
此外 研究表明做这些事绝对有助于健康
and also, research shows that those things are definitely good for you.
感谢赞助者托里·沃尔什的提问
Thanks to patron Tori Walsh for asking this question,
还感谢所有在Patreon投票选出问题的赞助者
and to all of our patrons on Patreon who voted to have it answered.
我喜欢你们提出的问题
We love the questions you come up with,
一如既往
and as always,
我们非常感谢你的支持
we are really thankful for your support.
感谢你帮助我们制作这个视频
Thanks for helping us make stuff like this.
如果你想支持《科学秀》 从网上得到免费科普
If you like to support SciShow and free science education on the Internet,
你可以前往patreon.com/scishow
you can go to patreon.com/scishow.
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视频概述

你一定看过朋友圈里别人分享的文章——《不要吃它!烤焦的面包致癌!》。可事实真的是这样吗?

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https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=JSmO-gbCx8s

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