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阿斯巴甜到底安全吗?

Is Aspartame Safe?

化学家们公布了一堆低卡路里的
Chemists have cooked up a range of low calorie
加糖替代物–其中
alternatives to added sugars – one of the
阿斯巴甜算是最受欢迎的添加剂之一了
most popular being aspartame.
从饮料到口香糖等6000多种食物中
This stuff can be found in over six thousand
你都可以发现它的存在
products from soft drinks to gum.
但从某一刻起 它的人设不那么美好了
But somewhere along the line, it managed to snag
它成了一种会引起很多包括癌症在内的
a not-so-sweet reputation as a chemical that can
健康问题的化学制品
cause a whole lot of health issues, including cancer.
我们决定近距离观察它 所以准备好
We decided to take a closer look, so get ready
从科学角度来了解一下阿斯巴甜
for the scientific scoop on aspartame.
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阿斯巴甜被发现于60年代中期
Aspartame was discovered in in the mid sixties
一位研究人员在研发一种抑制溃疡的药物的时候
when a researcher working an anti-ulcer medication
舔了一下他的手指 然后惊奇的发现了甜味
licked his fingers to find a surprising level of sweetness.
在某种程度上 这种愚蠢的做法真的是要
On very few occasions do really stupid decisions
付出代价的 所以研究员在做实验时最好不要舔你的手指
pay off; don’t lick your fingers in the lab people.
1克的阿斯巴甜约有4卡路里的热量
One gram of aspartame has around four calories,
和蔗糖一样 但是它却比一般的蔗糖甜200倍
the same as table sugar, but it packs 200 times
所以只吃一点点阿斯巴甜就够了
the sweetness, so you don’t need a lot.
平均一小包甜味剂只含
Your average packet of sweetener only contains
35毫克的阿斯巴甜 这也就是为什么
about 35 milligrams, which is why manufacturers
生厂商说他们甜味剂是零卡路里的
can say their sweeteners are zero calorie.
在80年代早期前后 美国食品药物管理局第一次将阿斯巴甜
Aspartame was taken through gauntlet of health
批准为人类消耗品后
studies both before and after the early 80s – when
对其进行了健康方面的严格检验
the FDA first approved it for human consumption.
从那时起 阿斯巴甜成了美国食品药物管理局批准
From that point on, it became one of the most
的产品中最受谴责的一种
heavily criticized products ever approved by the FDA.
但是大部分反对阿斯巴甜的说法
But a lot of the claims made against aspartame are
都来自于传闻证据或错误的研究所以我们还是看看科学事实到底是怎样的
bred from anecdotal evidence or flawed studies. Let’s get into the science.
你吃阿斯巴甜的时候身体会把它分解为这三种不同的化合物
When you eat aspartame, your body breaks it down
它们分别占了三种不同的比重
into these three different compounds, at these three percentages.
这些合成物中 甲醇被进行了最严密的审查
Of these compounds, methanol has been scrutinized
因为它会被代谢成甲醛
the most because it’ a metabolized into formaldehyde
经过长期暴露后所变成的一种众所周知的致癌物
– a known carcinogen under long term exposure.
但是告诉你一个有趣的事实 12盎司的果汁
But here’s an interesting fact for you: 12 ounces
所含的甲醇是一杯12盎司的无糖汽水
of fruit juice can have five times more methanol
所含甲醇量的五倍 这也就意味着多了五倍的甲醛
than a 12 ounce diet soda, which means five times the formaldehyde.
但是谁会因为喝了果汁就产生幻觉呢?
But who’s freaking out about juice?
这里还有关于甲醛的另一件事
Here’s the other thing about formaldehyde.
它会被身体迅速利用以产生
It is put to immediate use in the body making
一些重要的物质 如氨基酸
important things like amino acids, the
这种合成蛋白质的基本元素
building blocks of proteins, and never actually
其实是不会在身体里增长和贮存的
builds up and stores in the body.
事实上 你的身体自然产生的甲醛
In fact, your body naturally produces 1000 times
是你在消耗阿斯巴甜时所产生的1000倍多
more formaldehyde than you can consume through aspartame.
剩余的甲醛会转化为蚁酸
Leftover formaldehyde is turned into formic acid,
而蚁酸为随着尿液被排出或者
which is excreted through pee and broken
被二氧化碳和水所分解
down by carbon dioxide and water.
80年代的一项早期研究中 让受试人员消耗
An early study in the 80s had subjects consuming
当时美国人每天平均摄入量50倍的阿斯巴甜
fifty times the average American’s daily intake,
却发现他们血液中蚁酸的水平并没有显著的变化
only to find no significant change in levels of formic acid in their blood.
另一个双盲研究召集了一大堆志愿者
Another double blind study had a large group of
在为期24周的时间内 去服用包含大量阿斯巴甜的药片
people consuming pills containing the amount
这些药片是相当于10公斤无糖汽水中所含的量
of aspartame found in 10 liters of diet soda for 24
另一组人服用安慰剂 再一次发现
weeks, and another group on placebo, again to find
两组间在症状与测试中没有任何不同
no difference in symptoms or tests between the groups.
有谣言说阿斯巴甜会致敏
Some folk out there have reported a sensitivity to
从而产生不同的症状 其中包括
aspartame with different symptoms including
头疼 癫痫发作 恶心 焦虑 抑郁等
headaches, seizures, nausea, anxiety, depression, and much more.
然而 最近有一项双盲研究测试了48名
Well, a recent double blind studied tested 48 people
声称自己对阿斯巴甜过敏的人
who have claimed aspartame sensitivity.
他们再一次发现 没有任何证据显示这些人对阿斯巴甜有过敏反应
Their findings: again, zero evidence of acute responses to aspartame.
同样 还有的测试
Also, there have been trials on the effects of
阿斯巴甜对人类认知的影响 所有的实验
aspartame on human cognition, all concluding no
都表明阿斯巴甜对儿童和成人没有显著的影响
noticeable effects on both children and adults.
美国食品药物管理局规定的阿斯巴甜的每日可接受摄入量
The FDA has established the acceptable daily intake
是每1千克的体重每天摄入50毫克
of aspartame to be that of 50mg per 1kg of body weight per day.
因此 如果你的体重是68千克 或者150磅那么对于你来说
So, if you weigh 68kg, or 150lbs, you would be
每天摄入97小包甜味剂或大约
overdoing it if you somehow managed to consume
17.5罐12盎司的无糖汽水 才会过量
97 packets of sweetener or around 17.5 12oz cans of diet soda, A DAY.
疯子才会喝这么多吧
That’s insane.
但阿斯巴甜对每个人都是安全的吗?
But is it safe for everyone?
不幸的是 不
Unfortunately, no.
有一种罕见的疾病叫做苯丙酮尿症
Individuals with a rare condition called
而患有这种病的人就不能食用阿斯巴甜
phenylketonuria are supposed to stay away from
因为他们分解不了
this stuff because they are unable to break
食用阿斯巴甜后所产生的一种代谢物苯基丙氨酸
down one of the metabolites, phenylalanine.
同样的 有谣言称阿斯巴甜里的
Also, some folks claim the high concentrations of
高浓度的苯基丙氨酸会渗入你的大脑里
phenylalanine in aspartame leaks into your brain
然后耗尽血清素 导致抑郁的产生
and can deplete it of serotonin leading to depression.
但是同样没有被提到的就是牛奶了 一种
But the same has not been said of milk, a drink that
具有高达8倍的苯基丙氨酸的饮品
has up to 8 times the amount of phenylalanine.
还未有研究数据证明
There has yet to be any research to date proving a
阿斯巴甜与癌症有关联
connection between aspartame and cancer, and
然后随便说一下 阿斯巴甜一直以来都是
by the way, aspartame has earned itself an
最具研究性的食品添加剂之一
award for being one of the most heavily studied food additives of all time.
就算你不相信 但是有一件肯定的事就是
Even if you don’t believe it, one thing’s for sure
当尝到甜味 还有所有的甜品时 适度适量
when it comes to sweets, and all sweets, moderation
绝对会对你的身体有长期的好处
is always going to benefit you long term.
如果你喜欢这个视频可以再看看有关味精的那个视频
If you like this video, check out this one on MSG,
然后还有关于甜味剂科学方面的视频
and then also here’s one on the science of sweets.
感谢观看如果你有任何关于食品添加剂的问题
Thanks for watching, if you have any other questions
就把它留言在底下的评论区
about food chemicals, put your question down in
我们会回复你的
the comments section and we’ll get back to you.
点个赞并订阅我们的频道
Make sure to like and subscribe on the
下次见
way out, and we’ll see you again soon.

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视频概述

人们日常生活中很常见的阿斯巴甜是怎么被发现的?阿斯巴甜到底会不会对人体产生危害?关于阿斯巴甜的一切谜题这支视频都讲为你一一解开!

听录译者

收集自网络

翻译译者

chen~คิดถึง

审核员

审核员 DL

视频来源

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=92r1oOul0kM

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