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换位思考的真实内涵 – 译学馆
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换位思考的真实内涵

Irrational Thinking Is a Virtue, Not a Vice | Eric Weinstein

非理性何时成为美德(即 换位思考的重要性)
When Is Irrationality a Virtue?
我们必须接受心灵的不一致性 把它当作一个特点而不是一个缺陷
We have to embrace the inconsistency of our own minds, not as a bug but as a feature,
因为我们人类是受自然选择的力量影响
that we are in essence brought here by the forces of selection.
我们是自然选择压力系统的产物
We are the products of systems of selective pressures, and what they seem to do is to
这个系统好像能使我们能在同一思维中 运行多种不同的思维模式
create the ability to run many, many different programs and often contradictory programs
这些模式有时甚至互相冲突
within the same mind.
问题是为什么我们如此重视心理的一致性
And the question is why have we put such an extraordinary emphasis on intellectual consistency
以至于我们对他人的虚伪总是很警惕
so that we are constantly alerted to the hypocrisy of others but we are seemingly blind to it
却似乎看不到自己的虚伪?
in ourselves?
我们大脑的结构使我们能够运行好几个大脑沙箱 在这些沙箱中
Our mind is constructed with an architecture that allows us to run various sandboxes where
我们不用真正变成另一个人 却可以用另一个人的思想 换位思考
we can experiment with the ideas of others without actually becoming the other.
我们真的可以模拟他人的思想 换位思考吗?
Can we run another mind in emulation?
也许不能像它的原主人运行得那样好 但我们能通过换位思考
Perhaps not as well as its original owner, but can we run that mind well enough to understand
来理解他人 感同身受 并与他人的思想讨论辩论 从而达成更好的目标吗?
it, to empathize with it and to argue and spar with it to achieve some kind of better outcome
这样当我们真正理解了与自己不同的观点时
where we are actually able to turn foes into dancing partners as we come to show
我们才能够真正地化敌为友
that we’ve actually understood perspectives different from our own.
对这种思考方式最大的异议 是它在某种程度上是一种欺骗
The biggest objection to this way of thinking is that it’s somehow a kind of a cheat,
是虚伪的另一个名称
that hypocrisy is being summoned by another name.
但我认为这种观点其实是错误的
But I think this is actually incorrect.
我认为 比如说 我们拥有了这些沙箱
I think that we have these sandboxes, for example, so that we can fight more effectively
就能够更有效地击败一位对手
a foe that we feel we must defeat.
所以 比方说 我最近讨论了 能够在头脑中运行圣战份子沙箱的重要性
So, for example, recently I talked about the importance of being able to run a jihadi sandbox in our minds
如果我们想理解在伊斯兰恐怖组织背后的力量
if we want to understand the forces that are behind Islamic terror and
和它对 西方相对脆弱敏感的生死观 产生的影响
its effect on what I think are relatively fragile Western sensibilities about life and death
而如果我们拒绝换位思考 拒绝与他人感同身受
And so if we choose not to empathize with the other, to say that so much is beyond the
仅仅以心里有太多的不确定性而借口 拒绝换位思考
pale, we are probably not going to be very effective in understanding that the other
我们也许就不能真正理解 圣战分子并不认为自己是有罪的
does not see itself as evil.
他们的思维模式并不把自己看作一定要击败的敌人
It does not see itself as an enemy that must be fought.
我不一定同意他们的观点 但如果仅因为圣战分子的消极社会影响 而拒绝以他们的思维模式 进行换位思考
I don’t necessarily need to agree with it but to demonstrate that I can’t even run
这就是愚蠢透顶了
the program simply for the purpose of social signaling seems the height of folly.
如果我们猜不到别人接下来的行动 我们怎能有效地达成自己的目的
How do we hope to become effective if we can’t guess what the other will do next?
诚然 这也是有限制的
There are limits to this.
我们自身的思维也要保持一定的一致性
We have to have a certain kind of consistency of mind.
但是有一种这样的想法 假设你并不是一个顽固的理性主义者、唯物主义者、无神论者
But the idea that you can’t be capable of running a diehard rationalist, materialist,
同时宣称自己可能接受超然境界的态度
atheist program as well as a program that says perhaps I will open myself to transcendental
另外假设我还会将那些神人格化
states and, if I need to anthropomorphize those as coming from a deity, perhaps the
这种大脑机理并非理查德·道金斯所谓的
idea is that that architecture is not what Richard Dawkins would suggest is a kind of
心灵病毒
mind virus.
实际上 它是我们在面临危险时一种否定自己的能力
But, in fact, it’s a facility that we choose to deny ourselves in our peril.
如果我们陷入了思想的局部舒适区 在这种情况下 我们必须脱离局部合理区
What if we’re trapped on a local maximum of fitness and, in fact, we need to get to
我们要上到更高的层次
higher ground.
但目的是就跨越所谓的自适应谷
But the idea is that the traversal of the so-called adaptive valley where we have to
自适应谷就是我们在事情变好之前 必须让事情变得更糟糕
make things much, much worse before they get much better, what if the idea is that that cannot
如果这种想法无法像平常被理性地理解 我们就需要一点点信仰
generally be attempted rationally, that we need a modicum of faith, of belief that we
这种信念是无法参考任何信息集的
cannot reference to any sort of information set.
如果不这样做 我们有可能永远地沉陷在局部思想舒适区的泥潭中
We could end up trapped on local maxima forever.
但我认为意识到以下这点是很重要的 一些人也有可能
But I think it’s really important to consider that some people may be able to traverse the
不信仰神 也度过自适应谷
adaptive valley without a belief in a deity.
有些人也许需要对神的短期信仰
Some may need a temporary belief in a deity.
有些人可能需要借助一些超自然状态来强化自己的思想
Some may be able to reference some sort of a transcendental state and steel ourselves
最终才能成功地到达旅途的终点:换位思考
in order to make the journey.
但是无论这个跨越是怎样完成的 总会有一段时间貌似毫无希望
But however it’s accomplished there are times when it would appear that all hope is lost,
如果我们在这个黑暗阶段被困在了思想的局部舒适区
and that if we are not to end our days stuck on these local maxima of whatever we have
我们必须在根基上对思维方式进行试验性的改变 即使只是暂时性的
achieved, that we have to fundamentally experiment with ways of thinking, if only temporarily,
只有这样才能达到更高层次
to get us to higher ground.

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视频概述

人们很清楚换位思考的重要性,但在实践中却无法真正实行。本视频为换位思考建立了一个理论体系,希望对大家的思维模式与人际关系有所帮助。本视频理论性较强,因此有多处意译请谅解字幕君~建议多次观看并配合原文字幕使用(∩_∩)

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视频来源

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=eydQmYWaKBE

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