The first three months of the war have seen a whole new way of waging war.
In addition to the ever more effective weapons of war that now kill hundreds of thousands of men in mere weeks.
airplanes fly the skies to spot for artillery，
submarines prowl beneath the seas to sink sailors to watery graves,
and cars and trucks transport men and equipment like never before,
and just as all wars at some point become a war for vital resources,
all of these new machines require a new one and the Great War had now become a war for oil.
我是Indy Neidell 欢迎跟我走近一战
I’m Indy Neidell; welcome to the Great War.
When we left off we saw the Germans and Russians fighting the colossal battle of Lodz,
在此役中 德国没能控制这座城市 但是却破坏了俄国占领西里西亚的计划
which，though it did not result in German control of the city
did scuttle Russia’s plans for an invasion of Silesia.
With the end of the Battle of Ypres the Western Front had congealed into a frozen stalemate,
and in the Balkans, the Austrian army was pushing back the Serbs from the Kolubara River.
Now, there were over 100,000 Austrian troops further north under siege by the Russians in the fortress of Przemysl,
而在克拉科夫附近 还有另一支奥军 正在战斗
but there was still another Austrian army fighting in the field near Cracow.
The Austrian army had retreated from the battles along the San River a couple of weeks ago after heavy losses
And though much of their army was holed up at Przemysl,
奥军尚有大批人马在克拉科夫 俄军谨慎行军 于16日对奥军发起进攻
They had a huge force at Cracow which the Russians, after cautiously advancing, had attacked on the 16th.
Over the next ten days the Austrian army managed to stop the Russian juggernaut,
but it costed thirty thousand casualties and by the 26th, they were forced to pull back
The Russians were now only 8 miles from Cracow, the capital of Austrian Poland.
But the Austrians were making headway in the Balkans at least.
Although they were suffering heavy casualties, they were pushing further and further into Serbia day after day.
Actually, General Oskar Potiorek thought that the Serbs were trying to
lure the Austrians deep into the country so they could be encircled,
but he reasoned- correctly- that they were not in a position to do so.
经过三天的苦战 24日 塞尔维亚人被迫从马连山撤退
After three days of fighting, the Serbs were driven from Mount Maljen the 24th,
but Potiorek did not follow this up.
His casualties had been too heavy, and the terrain had become too difficult for his exhausted troops,
so the Serbs retreated unmolested.
Potiorek was still convinced, though, that the fall of Serbia was only a few days away
and even appointed the country’s future governor,
but when his army attempted to cross the junction of the Kolubara and Sava rivers on November 26th,
the Serbs forced them back with 50% casualties and the Austrian offensive ground to a halt.
As we’ve seen month after month, the Austrian army has had its share of disaster in the field
but the troubles in the army were also internal.
Chief of Staff Conrad von Hotzendorf was so worried about the national minorities of the Austro-Hungarian Empire
attempting to seize power during moments of Austrian weakness during the war
that he tried to impose military rule in Bohemia, Moravia, and Silesia.
Emperor Franz Josef rejected this plan. Conrad’s worries did have some basis in reality,
因为波兰人 克罗地亚人 斯洛伐克人及其他少数民族的忠诚度让人怀疑
for Poles, Croats, Czechs, Slovaks, and other minorities were suspect in their sympathies,
many of those minorities having a stronger affinity for the Russian enemy
and occasionally even deserting and changing sides.
One side note here, Jews were not considered suspect as many of the other minorities were
and actually played a large part in Austrian military affairs.
Three of the Empire’s Field Marshalls were Jewish and eight of her generals.
When you think about it, though unique in many other ways,
this war was also unique that so many of the world’s religions took part in it.
This week saw the end of the Battle of Basra in what is now Iraq,
where British and Indian troops defeated the Ottomans.
There’s a bunch of religions fighting right there.
现在 两周前 英军抵达法欧堡并将其攻占
Now,two weeks ago the British had landed troops and taken the Fortress of Fao,
the main Ottoman fortress on the coast of the Persian Gulf.
See, when the Ottoman Empire had entered the war at the beginning of November,
Britain had begun to worry about her oil facilities in the Persian Gulf.
The capture of Fao was the first step in securing them.
The London war office was actually favor simply defending British oil supplies and not engaging in offensive maneuvers,
But the Indian government, who provided the troops, favored a policy of “forward defense”.
You can guess what that meant. Basra, on the Shatt-al-Arab River, was the next step in securing the oil.
11月19日 在亚瑟·巴雷特将军的带领下 英军发起进攻
On the 19th of November, under General Sir Arthur Barrett, the British attacked,
但大雨使道路泥泞不堪 阻碍了大炮的运输 拖延了进攻
but heavy rainfall that turned the land to mud stalled the attack until the artillery could finally be brought up.
The Ottoman army broke under the bombardment and fled the city,
and Basra was occupied two days later.
The campaign could easily have ended then- the oil supplies and oil flow were secure-
but Basra turned out to be a pretty bad base of operations.
它虽然是个小港口 但它缺乏大量的基础设施 例如下水道
It was a minor port, sure,but it was missing a lot of basic facilities like sanitation.
没有铁路 公路极少 供水的河流十分肮脏
There were no railways,there were few roads, and the water supply was just the dirty river.
这条河是条潮汐河流 拥有众多附属支流 覆盖着几乎每天都被淹没的河漫滩
Now, the River itself was a tidal river with many tributary creeks that filled a flood plain that actually flooded on a daily basis,
and for half of the year the entire region flooded leaving Basra as an island,
so Barrett decided to follow the retreating Ottomans upriver to Qurna and try to make his base there,
where the Tigris and Euphrates flow together to form the Shatt-al-Arab.
Of course, oil was not the only raw material in big demand this war,
and I’m going to throw some quick statistics at you right now.
If you look at the part of France occupied by the Germans
you see that Germany now held 2/3 of France’s iron production,
a quarter of its steel, and a full half of French coal mining capacity.
Now, these are big numbers when you think of the enormous amounts of machines that need to be built and operated,
幸运的是 有一种”机械”不需要石油 也不需要煤:马
but fortunately there was one “machine” that didn’t run on oil and didn’t require any coal: the horse.
You needed a horse for almost everything in 1914,
and there was no way you were going to get your heavy artillery into place
without a great deal of horsepower.
An estimated two million horses served on the Western Front on both sides during the war
and while I don’t have numbers for all of the armies,
I do have some British numbers thanks to Max Hastings book “Catastrophe”.
In the first 12 days of the war, the British army bought 165,000 horses.
The horses and mules of the BEF had an annual mortality rate of 29%
with 13,000 of them dead by the end of 1914.
你可能会想 既然它们如此重要 一定会被善待
You’d think that since they were such a vital necessity they’d be better treated in general,
but such was not the case. There weren’t enough knowledgeable riders and grooms,
for one thing, food and water was often neglected or withheld,
men galloped on paved roads, saddle sores were ignored,
and heavy plough horses were conscripted into armies to pull heavy artillery
even though all the experts said it was a really bad idea.
They required large amounts of provisions, could not make forced marches,
and were highly susceptible to disease,so they died by the thousands
and it was only trial and error by the British and French that finally discovered that
American country horses from the plains and badlands of the Dakotas
were far more suitable for war than any horses raised in barns
By the end of the war, the British army had nearly a half million horses
and the Veterinary Corps personnel had grown from 360 to 28,000 four years later.
So here we are near the end of November, exactly four months into the war,
在本周末 奥军在塞尔维亚陷入困局 它们在普热梅希尔被包围 在科拉克夫也遇上麻烦
and in end of the week the Austrians are stuck in Serbia, surrounded in Przemysl, and in trouble at Cracow.
The British are on the move into Mesopotamia,
在比利时 法国 波兰以及东土耳其 交战双方都在忍受冰冻 处境悲惨
and in Belgium, France, Poland, and Eastern Turkey everyone on both sides is frozen and miserable.
瓦伦丁·弗莱明 他是国会议员也是创作詹姆斯·邦德的伊恩·弗莱明的父亲 曾写道
Valentine Fleming, MP and father of James Bond creator Ian Fleming,wrote,
“It’s going to be a long war, in spite of the fact that on both sides every single man wants it stopped at once.”
This was absolutely true, from the generals on down.
There was no end in sight; there was no relief in site,
and the men on the western front who had a week relatively free of constant bombardment
and furious rushes across no-mans land considered themselves lucky.
The only way to win this war was to seek new technological advantages
and one of the requirements for them was oil. Both sides now found themselves in a struggle for oil
that would last for four years and kill thousands upon thousands of young men.
Most of these young men lived the last days of their live in a vast network of trenches
From the early improvised days, it didn’t took long till these trenches were a parallel world
with structures that would go way beyond the inital purpose of pure protection of enemy bullets.
If you want to find out more about the trench system,
check out our special episode on trenches right here.
And let us know in the comments what other
topics you want to see in future special episodes.
See you next week.