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蚯蚓的入侵 – 译学馆
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蚯蚓的入侵

Invasion Of The Earthworms!

大家好 我是来自分钟地球的艾米莉
Hi, this is Emily from MinuteEarth.
因以树叶为食并钻入地底排泄使养分重新回归深土
Earthworms have earned a reputation as nature’s gardeners, because they eat leaves and then
蚯蚓被誉为大自然的园艺师
poop their way around underground, returning nutrients to the deep soil.
但事实上有些植物 甚至整个生态系统更适合无蠕虫的环境
But some plants, and even whole ecosystems, are actually better off wormless.
举个例子 几千年以来 北美北部的森林的树木长得又高又壮
For example, for several thousand years, the forests of northern north america grew tall
在某种程度上这是因为那里没有蠕虫
and thick, in part, because there were no worms.
没有蚯蚓的啃食 掉落的树叶堆积了厚厚的几层 它们保护了
Without earthworms to munch fallen detritus, leaves piled up in thick layers, which protected
小树苗免受寒霜和食草动物的攻击 同时也阻止了树的竞争对手们——
young tree seedlings from frost and herbivores, and also prevented the trees’ competitors
那些小型的向阳植物插一手来争夺阳光
– smaller, sun-loving plants – from pushing their way through.
但是后来 在1800年 一些来自欧洲的幼虫来到了这里
But, then, in the 1800s, some European wrigglers arrived – perhaps as fishing bait for other
可能是作为其他外来生物的鱼饵 它们入侵了周围的木头 并且迅速开始消灭
new immigrants – and invaded the surrounding woods, where they immediately started devouring
堆叠了数年的树叶层
the layers of leaves that had built up over the years.
养分就从树叶层下降至了深层土壤 这让小树的根部更难触及它们
This moved nutrients from the leaf layer to deeper layers of soil, where it’s harder
并且这还将那些树种暴露在外
for young tree roots to reach, and left tree seedlings exposed to the elements.
结果是 当老树死光的时候 没有足够多的新树替代它们
As a result, when old trees died, there weren’t as many young trees to replace them.
相反 生长更加快速的草和灌木开始长得茂盛了 这也包括了一些
Instead, faster-growing grasses and shrubs began to flourish, including some foreign
适应有蠕虫环境的外来物种 很可能是因为它们在欧洲时是
species that were good at growing around worms, possibly because they had coevolved together
共同进化的
back in Europe.
这些具有侵略性的蠕虫已经改变了北美北部的森林
The invasive worms have been altering the forests of northern North America for over
有两个世纪了
two centuries.
科学家也在担心接下来五十年内蚯蚓连同着鹿的数量增长
And scientists are worried that earthworms, along with an increasing deer population and
以及气候变暖将会造成森林大面积消失
a warming climate, could cause massive die-off of the forests in the next 50 years, and someday
并在将来变成稀树草原
help turn them into savannas.
准确来说 是变回稀树草原 因为在最后一个冰河世纪的冰川推平北美北部前
Or rather, BACK into savannas, because way back before glaciers bulldozed northern North
那里有可能就是一个有着土生土长的蚯蚓的稀树草原
America during the last Ice Age, it was probably a savanna, with its own set of native earthworms.
所以这些新的蚯蚓通过把养分带回深层泥土里
So the new earthworms, by helping nutrients return to the deep soil, might also be making
也许会将地形恢复成遥远的过去那样(既生动又准确)
room (both figuratively and literally) for the landscape to return to the deep past.
但是地形恢复是不是件好事 就又是另一个复杂的问题了
But whether or not that return is a good thing is a whole ‘nother can of worms.
本视频由明尼苏达大学赞助 各个领域 科系的学生和老师
This video was sponsored by the University of Minnesota, where students, faculty and
都在努力解决Grand Challenges面世的问题
staff across all fields of study are working to solve the Grand Challenges facing society.
Kyungsoo Yoo教授以及研究生Adrian Wackett正在研究由“全球变爬”所引起的
Professor Kyungsoo Yoo and graduate student Adrian Wackett are studying soil changes caused
泥土变化
by global “worming”.
Lee Frelich和Peter Reich正研究蠕虫是如何与其他侵略性生物相互影响并
Lee Frelich and Peter Reich are researching how worms interact with other invasive species
使森林发生变化的
to change the forest.
另外 Cindy Hale经营着The Great Lakes Worm Watch, 它帮助公众们更了解生态系统中的
And Cindy Hale runs The Great Lakes Worm Watch, which helps the public understand worms’ effects
蚯蚓效应
on the ecosystem.
感谢明尼苏达大学的工作和赞助
Thanks to the University of Minnesota for their work and this sponsorship.

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蚯蚓被誉为大自然的园艺师 那它们到底是有益还是有害呢

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