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直觉

Intuition: Epistemology | WIRELESS PHILOSOPHY

My name is Jennifer Nagel.
我是詹妮弗•纳高
I teach philosophy at the University of Toronto.
在多伦多大学的教授哲学
And today I want to talk to you about intuition.
今天我想和大家谈谈直觉
We’ll talk about what makes a judgement count as intuitive.
我们将讨论何种情况下的决定是直觉性的
And we’ll also talk about the role played by intuition in philosophy.
以及直觉在哲学中充当的角色
Many philosophers, over the centuries,
几个世纪以来
have recognized intuition as a way to gain knowledge
很多哲学家已将直觉视作获得知识的一种方式
alongside other ways like perception, testimony and explicit reasoning.
类似的方法还有感知 证明 及显性推理等
English philosopher John Locke gives us a pretty standard way
英国哲学家约翰·洛克提出了
to map out boundaries of intuition.
细化直觉范围的标准方法
So that’s where we’ll start.
我们也从这里开讲
Locke contrasts intuition to sensory perception on one side
一方面 洛克将直觉与感知进行对比
and to demonstration on the other.
另一方面 又与论证作了比较
Sensory perception, he notices, is always about particular things.
他注意到 感知总是关于特定事物
You see this pizza in front of you right now.
现在你看见这块披萨
Maybe you see that this pizza is round.
也许你看见的披萨是圆形
But we aren’t restricted to making judgements about particular things.
但我们本身并不局限于认知特定的事物
When we judge that “No round things are square”,
当我们称 “圆的东西不是方的”
we aren’t just thinking about that particular pizza,
我们不只在思考某个特定的披萨
but about a more general and abstract truth.
而是一个更普遍 更抽象的事实
Judging that circles are different from squares, according to Locke, is intuitive.
洛克认为 这种“圆不同于方”的认知就是直觉性的
And at least in this kind of case
至少在这种例子中
where Locke thinks we’re recognizing features of our ideas,
在洛克看来 我们在认知自己想法的特征
intuition is a perfectly good source of knowledge.
因此 直觉是相当棒的知识来源
We know that no round things are square through intuition.
我们凭直觉就知道 圆的东西不可能是方的
Locke also draws a contrast between intuition and demonstration.
洛克也将直觉和论证进行了对比
Intuition can tell us directly that a circle is not a triangle.
直觉直接告诉我们圆形不是三角形
But when we get to more complex questions,
但遇到更加复杂的问题时
we need to use demonstration or explicit reasoning.
就需要用到论证或者显性推理了
So for example, we can figure out
例如 我们通过可以算出
that the interior angles of a triangle add up to two right angles,
三角形的内角和等于两个直角和
but we have to go through a series of steps to gain this knowledge.
但我们必须通过一系列步骤得出这点
And that’s demonstration.
这个过程就是论证
Demonstration requires conscious stages.
论证需要一步步进行理性思考
Intuition is immediate.
直觉则是瞬间判断
Locke notices that intuition and demonstration are connected, however.
然而 洛克认为直觉与论证是有关联的
Each individual step in a chain of demonstrative reasoning is,
在论证过程中的每一步都是
or at least should be, intuitive.
或至少应该是 直觉性的
Contemporary thinkers still draw a similar distinction
当代思想家们也做了类似的对比
using a variety of labels for it.
只是叫法不同
Psychologists draw contrasts between implicit versus explicit thinking,
心理学家们对比的是 隐性思考与显性思考
heuristic versus systematic, automatic versus controlled.
探索性与系统性 自动化与控制化
It’s been argued that those different labels are marking a common divide.
有人认为这是在用不同标签区分相同概念
And in the spirit of neutrality the two sides are now often labeled
从比较中立的角度 我们通常称这两边为
type 1 and type 2 thinking.
系统1思维与系统2思维
But you’ll also commonly see the type 1 side labeled intuitive,
通常 系统1思维也被看作直觉思维
and the type 2 side as reflective.
而系统2则被看作理性思维
The key difference between the two sides,
这两种类型的关键差异
according to leading psychologists like Keith Stanovich
在杰出心理学家 基思·斯坦诺维奇
and Jonathan Evans,
与乔纳森·埃文斯二人看来
is exactly the difference that John Locke noticed.
正是约翰·洛克所说的差异
It’s whether you have to go through a series of conscious steps.
也就是 是否需要通过一系列理性思考的步骤
If I ask you to multiply 5 times 11,
如果我让你计算 5×11
the answer 55 probably comes to mind immediately and without effort.
你能够毫不费力地得出答案 55
So that’s intuitive for you.
对你来说 这就是直觉性的
But if I ask you to divide 5 by 11,
但是 如果我让你计算5÷11
you probably have to go through a series of steps
你大概需要经过一些步骤
in doing a long division.
来做这个除法
That’s reflection, not intuition at work.
这种情况下就是依靠理性 而不是直觉
But notice that when you’re doing that long division,
但要注意 你在做那个除法时
it breaks down into a series of single-digit operations
是把它分解成一连串的个位数运算
which are each intuitive.
其中每步运算都是直觉性的
Intuition seems to tell us many things
直觉似乎会告诉我们许多东西
and sometimes when you make an intuitive judgement,
有时候 在你做出直觉性的判断之后
you can go back and double-check it reflectively.
你可以有意识地回头检查一下
Even if you naturally judge that 5 times 11 equals 55 intuitively,
即使你直觉上认为 5×11=55是理所当然的
you can force yourself to think about it reflectively,
也可以逼自己试着理性思考
going over the digits one at a time.
仔细核查每一步运算
So intuition is immediate judgement,
总之 直觉是即时判断
not necessarily in a sense that it’s very fast, although it can be,
这不只是在强调直觉很快 虽然它确实很快
but in a sense that it’s not mediated
而是指它不像理性那样
by stages of thinking the way reflection is.
中间需要经过多个思考步骤
Like reflection, intuition is a way of judging things
和理性思考一样 直觉也可以用于判断
that are abstract or a modal
一些抽象的事物
not represented in any particular sensory modality
和无法用特定感官直接感知的模型
where vision can tell you about the colors of particular things,
视觉可以感知特定事物的颜色
and hearing can tell you about sounds.
听觉让你感受到声音
Intuition can tell you about more abstract stuff
而直觉能让你感受更抽象的事物
like geometry in numbers
如数字中蕴含的几何关系
and the kinds of things of that matter in philosophy
和哲学中的一些重要课题
like causation, justice and knowledge.
如因果 公正和知识等
For example, intuitively,
例如 直觉上来说
it seems wrong to harm an innocent person just for fun.
伤害无辜的人来取乐是错误的
Philosophers often test ideas against intuition.
哲学家们经常对反直觉的观念进行验证
So in Plato’s dialogue, Theatetus,
《柏拉图对话集:泰提特斯篇》中
Socrates is asked
苏格拉底曾被问到
whether knowledge is the same as true judgement,
知识是否等同于正确的判断
and he describes a scenario that intuitively illustrates the difference.
他描述了一个场景 直观说明了其间差异
In the scenario, a lawyer has to defend a client
在这个场景中 律师必须为一个
who’s been accused of a violent crime.
受暴力犯罪指控的当事人辩护
The client is actually innocent but there are no eyewitnesses available.
这个当事人其实是无辜的 但是没有目击证人
Given that he doesn’t have any solid evidence to present,
鉴于他没有任何确凿证据以证清白
the lawyer knows the best strategy
律师明白最佳的策略
is not to try to teach the jury about what happened
是不给陪审团讲述事情经过
but rather to use beautiful language
而是要用出色的口才
to get the jury to like his client.
让陪审团对当事人有好感
The lawyer is charming
这个律师很有魅力
and the jury comes to believe correctly that this client is innocent.
让陪审团最终认定 这个当事人确实是无罪的
Socrates asks:
苏格拉底问道
do those jury members actually know
陪审团成员真的知道
that the defendant has not committed this crime?
被告并没有犯罪吗?
If your intuitions are like Plato’s,
如果你的直觉跟柏拉图的一样
you’ll get the feeling they don’t know,
你会觉得陪审团并不知道
even though what they believe is true.
即使他们最后的判决符合事实
Philosophers use intuitive scenarios like this one
哲学家们会使用这样的直观场景
as evidence for general claims like the claim
来论证诸如此类的论断
that knowledge is something more than just true belief.
说明 知识不止是正确的信念
Notice that it can take effort or sequential thinking
要注意的是 我们得费些功夫或不停地思考
to imagine the scenario.
才能设想这样的场景
But when you ask the key question about
但是 当你问出关键性的问题
whether the jury members have knowledge,
即陪审团是否知晓真相
an answer just comes to you
你很快就可以得出答案
and it may not be obvious to you
而为何你会有这样的感觉
why you get the feeling that you do.
可能并不显而易见
It’s an interesting question where that kind of answer comes from.
很有趣的一个问题是 这样的答案从何而来
Notice that this video has so far
要注意的是 目前为止这个视频
defined the intuition negatively.
都在否定地定义直觉
It isn’t a sensory perception,
它不是感官知觉
and it doesn’t require conscious steps of reasoning.
也不需要有意识的推理步骤
Philosophers have many different positive theories of how intuition works.
但哲学家也有很多关于直觉作用原理肯定的说法
Plato thought we were guided by our memory of the forms.
柏拉图认为 我们是被自身关于形态的记忆所引导
Locke thought we were responding to features of our ideas.
洛克认为 这是对观念的特征做出的反应
Some 20th century philosophers like John Austin
20世纪中 像John•Austin的哲学家们指出
argued that we’re guided by our grasp of ordinary language,
我们的行为受自己对于日常用语的理解所引导
inheriting a history of learnt distinctions that have passed the test of time.
这些日常语言凝结了经过时间检验的概念区分
Still, other philosophers take us to have a more direct grip
然而 也有其他哲学家引导我们更加直接地重视
on the nature of targets like knowledge and morality.
像知识和道德之类的概念的本质
Some think that intuitions in different areas are generated in different ways.
一些人认为在不同领域 直觉产生的方式也不同
Maybe something’s become intuitive after we have rehearsed them.
也许有些事情是在我们反复练习之后才直觉化
The multiplication example could be in this category.
之前的乘法运算就属于此类
But in some areas we seem to have intuitions about novel problems.
但某些领域 我们似乎对全新的问题就有直觉
Perhaps we’re recognizing common patterns,
也许 我们正在识别共同的模式
and perhaps our instincts about morality
又或许 我们关于道德的直觉
work differently from our instincts about causation or knowledge.
与关于因果关系或认知的直觉原理不同
Some philosophers, they’re called experimental philosophers,
一些被称为“实验哲学家”的研究者认为
think that it’s important to conduct formal studies of people’s intuitions
对人的直觉进行规范的研究非常重要
rather than just reporting one’s own armchair impressions.
而不能仅限于发表自己纸上空谈的感想
Philosophers with very different positive theories of intuition
尽管以上关于直觉的肯定说法观点各异
can agree that intuition is often a good way of making judgements
大部分哲学家却都认同直觉常有利于做出判断
while allowing that it can sometimes fail.
即使它有时可能会失败
And we can be led astray,
我们也会因此误入歧途
either because intuition itself is imperfect
这要么因为 直觉本身并不完美
or because we make a judgement which feels like an intuitive judgement,
要么因为 我们做出的判断只是像直觉判断
but it isn’t really one
事实上并不是
Something can seem intuitively right
有些事情直觉上似乎是对的
and on reflection we can realize that we were mistaken.
但深思之后 我们就意识到了错误
On some questions, different people may have different intuitions.
在一些问题上 不同的人可能直觉各异
And sometimes you can find
甚至有时你会发现
that your own personal intuitions are in conflict with each other.
连你自己的直觉都是彼此矛盾的
Indeed philosophical progress often begins
实际上 哲学进步也正始于这种
when you have difficulty building a systematic and consistent theory that fits key intuitions.
你无法建立系统的 连贯且自洽的理论的时候
We have various paths open to us
当我们的直觉相互矛盾时
when our intuitions seem to be in conflict.
有很多种解决思路
We can find out about possible biases
我们可能会发现隐藏的偏见
and perhaps discount some intuitions as natural cognitive illusions.
并把直觉归结为某些自然的认知幻想
We can defend a frankly counter-intuitive theory
也有可能 我们会维护一个明显反直觉的理论
on the basis of its theoretical virtues like its simplicity.
就只是因为这个理论的某个优点 比如简单易懂
We may be able to train ourselves to have new intuitions in some cases.
一些情况下 我们还能通过训练获得新的直觉
Finding out about conflict in our intuitions
即使发现我们的直觉之间存在冲突
isn’t necessarily a reason to be skeptical about intuition.
并不是一定要怀疑直觉本身
We also have some conflicts in our ordinary sensory perceptions.
而且 我们日常的感官知觉也存在一些矛盾
For example, we experience perceptual illusions,
例如 我们会体验到错觉
and we make observational errors.
又比如 我们的观测会有误差
But there’s enough common ground and consistency
但是 我们感官所感知到的事物特性
in what we perceive with our senses
其实有很多共同点和一致性
that a general attitude of trusting sensory perception seems well founded.
所以我们对于自身感知的信任很大程度上是可靠的
And we can work to correct for our mistakes
而且我们还可以努力纠正我们的错误
and explain how they happened.
并解释其中原理
It’s an interesting question whether something parallel is possible in philosophy.
哲学里很有趣一个问题是 不相关的事物是否存在的
When we tackle the project of building and defending
当我们试图建立或者捍卫诸如
a coherent theory of knowledge, morality
知识 道德或者其他哲学上有趣的概念的
or some other philosophically interesting target.
统一理论的时候
we’re tackling something very difficult
我们其实是在处理一些非常艰难
that has been an ongoing project for centuries.
而且持续了几个世纪的难题
So far intuitions seem to have provided
目前看来 直觉似乎可以为我们的此类研究
some valuable guidance in that kind of project.
提供一些有价值的指导
At least it’s very difficult to see
至少 我们很难想象
how philosophy could start if it didn’t consult intuition at all.
如果完全不参考直觉 哲学如何开始
How far intuition can ultimately take us
当然 直觉最终能带我们走多远
remains to be seen.
还有待观察

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视频概述

什么是直觉|直觉与判断|直觉与哲学;

听录译者

Estherrr

翻译译者

德克萨斯土豆丝

审核员

审核员HC

视频来源

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=vGo7i7gtO8w

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