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内向与外向 – 译学馆
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内向与外向

Introverts vs Extroverts

Some of us like to spend our weekend with a book in hand,
有些人喜欢在周末看看书
while others prefer a night
有些人喜欢社交
out being the centre of attention.
喜欢被关注
But from a scientific perspective, is there an advantage
但从科学的角度来看 性格内向或者外向
to being an introvert or an extrovert? Which is better?
是否存在优势 哪种性格又更好呢
The idea of two polar personalities
这两个截然相反的性格的概念
was first described by Swiss German psychologist Carl
由瑞士籍德国心理学家卡尔·荣格提出
Jung, who coined the terms introversion and extraversion.
他发明了内向及外向这两个词
Jung’s theory was further
德国心理学家汉斯·艾森克
elaborated upon by Hans Eysenck,
更深入地阐述了荣格的理论
a German psychologist who defined introverts and extroverts
汉斯以人的唤醒水平
by their baseline arousal.
来定义内向和外向
Extroverts, with their lower level of arousal, would need to
外向的人唤醒水平更低 因此
do more exciting things that would
为了获得满足感
physically and mentally exhaust an introvert, in order
他们要做更多事来保持兴奋 而这些事
to reach satisfaction.
让内向的人身心俱疲
So while an introvert might be content with a leisurely bicycle
所以当内向的人满足于悠闲地
ride through a quiet park,
在公园里骑着脚踏车时
an extrovert might need to hit the dirt roads in order to feel
外向的人可能更需要在泥路上行驶
mentally satisfied.
以获得心灵上的满足
Brain scans show a thicker prefrontal cortex
前额皮质负责沉思与谋划
in introverts compared to extroverts, which
脑部扫描发现 比起外向者
is associated with deeper thought and planning,
内向者的前额皮质更厚
suggesting that extroverts may be more impulsive
这意味着外向者比内向的人更冲动
than introverts, who prefer to ‘ mull things
而内向的人则倾向于仔细考虑
over ’ instead of directly springing into
而不是立刻付诸行动
action. But because of this tendency to ruminate in introverts,
但因为内向的人思虑更多
they ’ re also more susceptible
他们情绪也更容易
to developing anxiety and depression.
感到焦虑和沮丧
Extroverts also respond more strongly to rewards,
外向者对奖赏的反应也更强烈
with brain scans showing a significantly more
通过脑部扫描可以看到
activated dopamine reward system than introverts,
当他们完成或赢得一场电子赌博
when completing and winning a computerized
其多巴胺奖赏系统比内向者更活跃
gambling task. And given that we ’ re social animals,
鉴于人类是社交动物
dopamine is also released when interacting
我们和其他人互动时
with other humans.
也会分泌多巴胺
This was especially important as hunter-gatherers who relied upon others
这对游猎采集部落里的人尤其重要
for both food and protection from predators.
他们互相依赖以获得食物和保证不受肉食动物袭击
However, human connection has a greater impact on extroverts than introverts.
但社交对外向的人影响更大
In fact, it
事实上
has been shown that the brains
比起平淡的风景照
of extroverts respond more strongly when shown photos of
外向者看到肖像照时
humans faces compared to neutral photos of nature.
脑部反应更强烈一些
For introverts, the brain response
而内向者看两种照片时
is similar between the two.
脑部反应相似
Now, that ’ s not to say
这些并不代表
that introverts don ’ t feel any excitement from winning or that they
内向者感觉不到胜利带来的兴奋感
strongly dislike being around people.
或者非常不喜欢人多
But they simply don’t feel as excited and don’t
他们只是不需要兴奋或社交
require as much social interaction in order to feel good.
来让自己感觉良好
In terms of genetics, there may be an evolutionary advantage to each trait.
从遗传学来看 每种性格都有进化上的优势
For instance, introverts
比如 内向的人
might have stuck to the sidelines to avoid predators,
可以专心副业以躲避食肉动物
while extroverts would roam and
而当粮食紧缺时
explore giving them an advantage when food is scarce.
外向者的走动和探索则给了他们优势
A study involving 130 participants
一项130人参与的研究发现
discovered that those who were more inclined to
那些更喜欢冒险的人
be adventurous had two copies of one particular
有两对特定的等位基因
allele (Met/Met), reinforcing the idea that these personality traits are partially linked
这更加证明了性格特征与基因
to genetics.
是相关的
In many ways our society has an extroversion bias,
我们的社会在很多方面偏爱外向者
where qualities like ‘ putting yourself
人们很崇尚
out there’ are highly valued.
敢于实践的精神
Our institutions are also often designed with the extroverts
我们在设计制度时往往也是为外向者考虑
in mind, where ‘ group work ’
很多学校和公司
is a popular practice in most schools and workplaces, with
都提倡团队工作 因为他们认为
the idea that creativity comes from a sociable place.
创造来源于社交氛围好的地方
However, as social animals we instinctively
但是作为社交动物
mimic others opinions without realizing it, suggesting that your brainstorming sessions
我们并没意识到自己对别人观点的盲目赞同
with others may not always be productive.
这说明头脑风暴也不都是有效的
When we disagree with a group, neuroscientists
神经科学家发现
have shown high activation in the amygdala –
当我们与他人意见不合时
a part of the brain associated with the
大脑中与拒绝有关的杏仁体
sting of rejection.
会变得很活跃
When we think of introverts,
说起内向者
shyness and the preference to be alone often come to mind,
我们常常想到害羞和喜欢独处
but in reality, introverts may simply prefer close conversations
而现实是,内向者依然喜欢亲密交谈
with one or a few people,
但只和三五好友
instead of dozens.
而不是一群人
Furthermore, introverts may even be better public speakers, as they
此外 内向的人可能更擅长公众演讲
are known to think through ideas thoroughly compared to extroverts,
他们因认真思考而闻名
who may choose to
而外向者
make rash decisions instead.
则会做冲动的决定
But, perhaps you are an ambivert,
但是 你可能属于模糊派
right in the middle of the introvert/extrovert Venn
正处于两种性格交叉的位置
diagram, combining the best of both worlds!
兼具二者的优势
A recent study involving 340 call centre representatives
最近一项研究用三个月追踪了340位
had their sales record tracked for a period of three months.
电话服务中心人员的销售记录
Those who were neither strong
内外向性格都不明显的
extroverts or introverts generated the most revenue,
反而是效益最高的人
averaging $ 208 per hour, compared
他们平均每小时赚208美元
to the study average of $138 per hour.
而平均水平才138美元/小时
So, what do you see yourself as?
你觉得你是哪种性格
And do you think one is better than the other?
你觉得哪种性格更好一点吗
Let us know in the comments below!
在下面评论区告诉我们
Special thanks to audible
特别感谢Audible
for supporting this episode to give you a free 30 day trial at
对本集内容的赞助支持 现在登陆
audible.com/asap. This week we wanted to recommend the book “Introvert Power: Why Your Inner
audible.com/asap可以免费试用30天 这周的推荐书目是
Life Is Your Hidden Strength ”
《内向的力量:为什么你的内心充满潜能》
which analyzes strategies for introverts to excel, living
这本书分析了一个内向的人如何从
in an extroverted world!
一个外向的世界中脱颖而出
You can get a free 30 day trial
登陆Audible.com/asap
at audible.com/asap and choose
免费试用30天
from a massive selection!
大量课程供你选择
We love them as they are great when you ’ re on the go.
很适合你忙碌时使用 我们非常喜欢
And subscribe for more weekly science videos!
点击订阅 获取更多每周科学视频

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内向和外向各有什么特点,有孰优孰劣吗?

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