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内向者、外向者、还是中间性格者? – 译学馆
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内向者、外向者、还是中间性格者?

Introvert, Extravert or Ambivert?

内向与外向这两个概念
Introversion and extraversion are terms
最初是由瑞士精神科医生卡尔·古斯塔夫·荣格
first coined by psychiatrist Carl Gustav Jung
于二十世纪二十年代提出的
in Switzerland in the 1920s
根据荣格的理论
according to Jung
外向者会寻求与外界的紧密接触
an extravert seeks intensive contact with the outside world
而内向者反而是将心理能量内化
an introvert instead turns the physic energy inwards.
荣格认为 没有谁是100%的外向者
Jung believed that no one is a hundred percent extravert
或是100%的内向者
or a hundred percent introvert
相反 我们拥有两者的特性
instead we carry both traits
然而大多数人会倾向于内向或者外向
however most minds tend to lean either to one side or the other.
如果一个人表现出来的内向与外向特征相同
If both characteristics are equally present
那我们就可以说
we can speak of someone
这个人是个中间性格者
who has an ambivert personality.
在二十世纪六十年代
In the 1960s
心理学家汉斯·艾森克发展了卡尔·荣格的理论
the psychologist Hans Eysenck added to Carl Jung’s ideas.
他认为内向者与外向者的主要区别
He argued that the main difference between introverts and extraverts
在于他们获取心理能量的方式
lies in the way they gain and recharge their mental energy.
内向者的大脑天生就比较活跃
By Nature, introverted people have a higher level of brain activity
因此内向者感到
and therefore feel a greater need
让自己免受外界刺激的强烈需要
to shield themselves from external stimuli.
通过不和外界交流 他们获得了心理能量
By withdrawing themselves they gain mental energy.
外向者的神经元活动水平很低
The neuronal activity of extraverts is lower.
为克服这一点
They overcome this lack
他们将自己置身于外界刺激中
by exposing themselves to external stimulation.
通过这种方式给心灵电池充电
This charges their inner batteries.
为了阐释这点区别
To illustrate the difference
我们来想象一下这两个孩子的差异
let’s compare two imaginary children:
杰是个外向的人
Jay is extraverted.
他喜欢被同学包围
He loves to be surrounded by classmates.
他喜欢成为众人的焦点
He enjoys being the center of attention
也喜欢和朋友聊各种各样的话题
And loves to talk to his buddies about all kinds of stuff.
他会和陌生人踢足球
He organizes football games with strangers
随后也愿意和别人一起打乒乓球
and right after is open to playing ping-pong with someone else.
通过寻求社交上的刺激
By seeking social stimuli
他得到了心理能量
he gains mental energy.
安是个内向者
Ann is introverted.
在别人都在公园里玩耍的时候
As others play around in the park
她更喜欢独自坐在一旁看着
she often enjoyssitting alone watching.
在家里 她会自己一个人在花园里种些草药
At home, she plants herbs in the garden, all byherself.
慢慢地 她成了这个领域的专家
She slowly becomes a real expert in this field
但这只有她自己知道
but that’s her secret.
为了给自己的心理电池充电
To recharge her batteries
安需要一些平静且安静的时间
Ann needs peace and quiet time.
内向者不一定是害羞的
Introverts are not necessarily shy,
尽管他们似乎会在别人聊天的时候走开
even if it appears they like to walk away from small talk.
实际上安一点也不害羞
Ann in fact is not shy at all.
她不害怕和任何人说话
She is not afraid to talk to anyone,
包括年长或级别高的人在内
not even seniors.
当周围有太多的人
When too many people are around
谈话变得肤浅或者不清楚的时候
and the conversations become superficial or confusing
她就会很累
she gets super tired.
她的应对策略就是悄悄退出
Her strategy is to fade out
然后通过安静来给自己充电
and go inside herself to rechargethrough silence.
杰喜欢很多人围在他周围
Jay loves to have many people around him,
一个接一个的谈话能够激励他
to jump from one conversation to the next stimulates him.
一些专家称
Some experts claim
外向者和内向者在思维的形成过程中 使用了不同的脑区
that extraverts and introverts use different brain areas to form their thoughts.
外向者倾向于用短期记忆
An extravert tendsto use short term memory
因此能够很快地进行联想
and therefore is able to come to fast associations
因此杰说话说的又快又多
Jay therefore talks fast and a lot.
他看起来很聪明
He appears smart
因为他的大脑总是能快速给他提供答案
because his brain always offers an answer quickly.
不过他经常还没思考话就脱口而出了
However he often speaks before he thinks
之后又转变了心意
and later changes his mind.
像安这样的人
Someone like Ann
会从大脑的长期记忆中细心地寻找答案
works with her brain to carefully retrieve information from her long-term memory.
她的思想更加复杂
Her thoughts are more complex
因此需要更多的时间去组织
and hence need more time to develop.
因此 她先思考
She therefore thinks first
再开口说
and then speaks.
如果有游客向这两个人问路
If the two were asked for directions by a tourist
安会花时间想出最好的答案
Ann would spend time thinking about the best answer
而杰会提出多种可选方案
while Jay would have already come up with different kinds of options.
优秀的老师以及聪明的商业领袖
Good teachers and clever business leaders
知道内向者和外向者的不同性格
know about the different nature of introverts and extraverts
并会努力发扬他们的长处
and try todevelop their strengths.
在提出问题后
When raising questions
他们要求每个人在回答前安静地思考一分钟
they ask everyone to think for a minute in silence before answering.
外向者学会了在发言前组织他们的思想
Extraverts then learn to formalize theirthoughts before they speak
而内向者有更多的时间来练习公众演讲
and introverts get more talking time topractice public speaking.
进行头脑风暴时 他们会用正式流程或者发言棒
At brainstorming they use a formal process or a talking stick
来确保安也能参与其中
to make sure an Ann also gets to participate.
通过设定正式流程
Group projects can be formalized
团体项目能帮助到内向者与外向者
to support both temperaments.
其中一个项目要求外向者和内向者合作
In one project extraverts and introverts work together.
杰从安那里学习
Jay then learns from Ann
怎么把小想法发展成更复杂的想法
how to think ideas over to develop more complex thoughts.
反过来
And in return
安可以从杰那里学到快速联想的技巧
benefits from Jay’s fast association skills
学习如何更加灵活的思考与表达
and learns to think and speak more flexibly.
在下一个项目中
In the next project
同一种性格的人共同协作
the same temperaments work together.
这样他们能在对方身上看到自己的性格特点
Then they see their own traits in the opposite person.
如果同种性格特点的人所在的组遇到了问题
If confrontedwith problems in teams of the same character
内向者需要大声地说出来
introverts need to speak up
而外向者则必须要深度思考以使活动继续下去
and extraverts are forced to think deep to proceed.
教育家鲁道夫•斯坦纳
The educator Rudolf Steiner
提倡在他的华德福学校运用这一方法
was a proponent of this method for his Waldorf schools.
心理学家杰罗姆•卡根关于幼儿性格的研究表明
Psychologist Jerome Kagan’s research on temperament in Toddlers
我们生来就有的许多性格特征到了成年期也发挥着作用
showed that many character traits we are born with make it into adulthood.
他让500个幼儿接受不同的刺激
He confronted 500 babies with different stimuli
比如说巨大的声响 难闻的气味
like loud sounds and bad smells.
约20%的幼儿哭喊或者变得紧张
Around 20% of the babiescried or got nervous,
约40%的幼儿仍较放松
40% stayed relaxed
另外的40%的幼儿则处于这两种状况之间
and the other 40% were somewhere in between.
多年后的第二次实验显示
A second test years later showed,
当时反应不那么强烈的幼儿更外向
that babies who didn’t react strongly turned out to be more extraverted.
那么你呢?
What about yourself?
你觉得你自己更为内向还是外向?
Do you consider yourself more introverted or extraverted?
或者你是否觉得这种分类是有缺陷的
Or do you think this classification is flawed
而根本没有这回事呢?
and there is no such thing?
请在下方的评论区分享你的想法吧
Please share your thoughts inthe comments below.
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Millions of students from all around the globe
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你是一个内向者还是外向者,还是介于两者之间呢?

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