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令人兴奋的历史时刻-嗑药的纳粹 – 译学馆
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令人兴奋的历史时刻-嗑药的纳粹

Intoxicated Moments in History - Nazis on Drugs

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历史上的兴奋时刻——嗑药的纳粹
INTOXICATED MOMENTS IN HISTORYNAZIS ON DRUGS
德国在一战后状况很糟
Germany was in a terrible state following the First World War.
这给了纳粹党可乘之机
These conditions gave rise to the Nazi Party,
也为滋生药物滥用提供了温床
but also laid the foundation for the proliferation of drug use.
在二战爆发之际
Upon the outbreak of the Second World War,
第三帝国(德国)和药物(毒品)
both the Third Reich and drugs
这二者的历史盘根错节在一起
would find their histories entwined.
其影响从国内延伸到前线
This influence would stretch from the Homefront to the frontlines
而且一路进入了德军的指挥系统
and go all the way up the German chain of command,
甚至影响到希特勒自己
even to the Führer himself.
今天我们就要问一个问题:
Today we will be asking the question:
纳粹到底嗨到了什么程度?
Just how high were the Nazis?
嗑药的国民
CIVILIAN DRUG USE
1920年代的德国急需缓解痛苦
1920s Germany was in desperate need of pain relief,
而这正是由恶性通胀 战败屈辱
created by hyperinflation, humiliation,
对政府失去信任
loss of faith in government
以及成百上千的退伍军人所导致的
and hundreds of thousands of returning veterans.
随着柏林变为欧洲第一的毒窟和性爱之都
Drug use in the Weimar period exploded, with Berlin becoming
在魏玛时代 药物滥用开始爆发
one of Europe’s premier destinations for dope and sex.
可卡因在街上随处可见
Cocaine was the drug of the streets.
有记载显示 在这个时期
Records indicate Peru sold almost all
秘鲁几乎把其所有的可卡因都卖给了德国
of its raw cocaine production to Germany during this time period.
吗啡在退伍士兵群体中也相当流行
Morphine also proved particularly pervasive among veterans
据报道 柏林40%的医生使用成瘾
and reportedly 40% of Berlin doctors were hooked on the substance.
在1933年纳粹党取得政权时
When the Nazi Party seized power in 1933,
他们“优等种族”的口号开始甚嚣尘上
their propaganda called for the “master race” to rise up
而且在世界舞台取得了合法位置
and take its rightful place in the world stage.
理论上 这意味着德国回归到
This, theoretically, meant returning the nation
理想状态下纯净的社会
to the ideals of a pure, clean living society
而不是如今感受到的放肆无度
in opposition to the perceived excesses
和后战争时代的道德衰退
and moral decline of the post-war period.
政府试图通过立法限制药物使用
Laws were passed to attempt to curtail drug use,
但最终未对普通群众造成很大影响
but would ultimately have a muted impact on the general population,
只针对少数群体
being used instead to target minority groups.
毕竟一群“兴奋”的国民可能有益于
After all, the Führer’s call for an “Awakened Germany”
希特勒创造所谓的“觉醒的德国”
might benefit from a wired population.
在1930年代 一个叫Temmler的制药公司
In the 1930s, Temmler, a Berlin pharmaceutical company,
生产了一种叫柏飞丁的含有甲基苯丙胺的药物
developed a methamphetamine-based drug called Pervitin.
到1938年 它进入大众市场
By 1938, it entered the civilian market
并迅速成为畅销商品
and quickly became a top seller.
这种新药有增加信心
This new, over-the-counter sensation
延长清醒时间并抑制饥饿的显著效果
could boost confidence, extend wakefulness and suppress hunger.
它甚至被添加到日常消费的巧克力中
It was even added to chocolates for everyday consumption.
随着战争的爆发 国内的压力增大
As the stresses on the Homefront increased with the outbreak of war,
这些增强性能的兴奋药物的使用
the uses of a performance-enhancing stimulant
越来越表现出其好处
proved increasingly advantageous.
嗑药的军队
MILITARY DRUG USE
不论是根据个人使用情况还是间接研究
Either through personal use or indirect research,
德国军事指挥官们
members of the German military command grew increasingly interested
对可能促进战争胜利的药物越来越感兴趣
in the potential war-winning benefits of drugs.
在1939年 军医学院对柏飞丁
In 1939, Pervitin was investigated
进行了研究
by the Academy of Military Medicine
并在入侵波兰期间对驾驶员进行了试药
and tested on drivers during the invasion of Poland.
报道大肆宣传 在大多数项目中
Glowing reports showed that in most subjects,
药物增加了自信心
the stimulant increased self-confidence,
注意力和冒险的意愿
concentration and the willingness to take risks,
同时也减少饥渴
while also reducing hunger, thirst,
痛苦和倦意
pain and the need for sleep.
这样的效果非常
Such effects were perfectly suited
适合德国的“闪电战”计划并很快被采用
for Germany’s plan “Blitzkrieg warfare” and was quickly adopted.
在1940年侵略期间
During the invasions of 1940,
药物被大批配给到前线
drugs were distributed in bulk to the frontlines.
在4月至7月间
Between April and July,
超过3500万片柏飞丁和伊索芬
more than 35 million tablets of Pervitin and Isophan
被运到德国陆军和空军
were shipped to the German Army and Air Force.
一个药物法令被下达给军医
A stimulant decree was sent out to army doctors,
要求士兵每天 白天服用一片
recommending that soldiers take one tablet per day
晚上短时间内服用两片
and two at night in short sequence.
官方指导声称
Official guidelines stated that
两片可在3—8小时内抑制睡眠需求
two tablets eliminated the need to sleep for three to eight hours,
而4片则在24小时内有效
and four tablets could be effective for 24 hours.
在这种情况下就更容易理解
In this context, it is easier to understand
德国军队是如何
understand how German divisions were able
能够在极短的时间内快速进军法国了
to make such rapid advances into France in such little time.
随着战争的延续 柏飞丁被继续
Pervitin continued to be supplied to the Armed Forces
提供给军队
as the war dragged on.
前线收回的信件显示 士兵们在写信
Letters recovered from the front shows soldiers writing home,
乞求更多的柏飞丁 并描绘它的功效
begging for more Pervitin and touting its beneficial effects.
在东线战场 军医有如下记录
On the Eastern Front, military doctor recorded that
直到药物发放之前 他所在的小队
his unit was struggling to move in freezing weather
在极寒天气下很难行军
until drugs were issued.
服药30分钟内
Within 30 minutes quote,
士兵们都自然地报告说他们好多了
The men began spontaneously reporting that they felt better.
开始像之前那样行军
They began marching in an orderly fashion again.
他们的精神恢复了 且变得更加警觉
Their spirits improved and they became more alert.”
这种药物使用从部队遍及高层
Such drug use spread from the troops to their higher-ups
面对长期的冲突 它们竭尽全力地
in the all-out effort to keep the war machine running
维持战争机器的运行
in the face of a protracted conflict.
然而不久之后 很显然
Shortly, however, it became clear
嗑药的军队是不能
that a meth-addicted force cannot operate
永远表现得像超人一样的
at superhuman levels indefinitely.
药效在慢慢下降
The drug’s potency was waning,
健康问题随着频繁用药而开始凸显
and health problems flared up with frequent use.
普遍的药物滥用带来的麻烦越来越明显
The downsides of widespread stimulant use were increasingly noticeable.
绝望的时期倒逼绝望的手段
Desperate times called for desperate measures.
新的研究被启动 在1944年
New research was undertaken, and in 1944,
神奇的药问世了 代号为D9
miracle pill was developed, codenamed D9.
它含有5毫克可卡因
It contained five milligrams of cocaine,
三毫克柏飞丁和五毫克优可达
three milligrams of Pervitin and five milligrams of eukodal.
测试对象可以每天
Test subjects could march
在负重20千克的情况下
for up to 90km per day without rest
行军达90公里而不用休息
while carrying a 20 kilogram backpack.
虽然这些新药没能使德国获胜
While these new drugs may not have won Germany the war,
他们无疑在延长战争上起了作用
they certainly played a part in prolonging it.
嗑药的领袖
LEADERSHIP DRUG USE
药物在第三帝国的影响
The influence of drugs in the Third Reich
似乎已经一路蔓延到了领导层
seems to have extended all the way up the leadership structure.
尽管档案记载不太清楚
While records are somewhat spotty, it appears that
但它的确显示部分纳粹高官的确很嗨
some members of the Nazi High Command were indeed high.
比如 赫尔曼·戈林 纳粹空军总司令
Herman Goering, commander-in-chief to the Luftwaffe, for instance,
在啤酒店政变时受伤之后就对吗啡上瘾了
have become addicted to morphine after being injured during the Beer Hall Putsch.
用量每天达到三到四克
His consumption reached three to four grams a day,
超过最大安全剂量水平的两倍
more than twice maximum safe dosage levels.
吗啡的副作用包括困倦 头痛和焦虑
Side-effects of morphine use include drowsiness, headaches and anxiety,
他在空军会议上打瞌睡时
features which he is said to have exhibited
就表现出了这些特征
while dozing off during Luftwaffe staff meetings.
他的这个习惯持续到了
Goering would continue his habit
战后的纽伦堡审判
right up until the Nuremberg trials after the war.
至于希特勒集团的其他人
As for the rest of Hitler’s inner circle,
他们的药物使用情况很难确切说明
there is very little we can say definitively about their drug use.
然而在战争结束之前 许多人可能
However it does appear that by the end of the war,
已经接受过西奥多·莫雷尔医生的治疗
many may have been attended to by Dr. Theodor Morell,
他被戈林玩笑地称为“帝国注射大师”
whom Goering jokingly dubbed “the Reichmaster of injections”.
其实 莫雷尔是希特勒的私人医生
In fact, Morell was Hitler’s own personal physician,
他保留了元首的许多医疗记录
who kept extensive medical records on the Führer.
这之中就有很多故事了
These tell quite the tale.
在1936年莫雷尔在通过非常规手段
Morell had first gained Hitler’s trust in 1936,
治疗希特勒的肠胃病时
when the doctor was able to treat his stomach
第一次得到了希特勒的信任
and intestinal issues through unconventional means.
二人关系慢慢增进 药物使用也随之增加
Their relationship grew over time, and so did the drug use.
开始是偶尔的疼痛缓解治疗
What began as the occasional pain relief treatment
后来变成日常的晨间注射以克服困倦
accelerated into routine morning injections to combat drowsiness.
多疑的希姆勒曾对这些进行秘密测试
These were secretly tested by a suspicious Heinrich Himmler
他发现药物成分中含有甲基苯丙胺
whom found the included methamphetamines.
在1941年希特勒病重时
Hitler’s reliance on drugs again increased in 1941
其药物依赖又加深了
when he fell seriously ill,
于是莫雷尔决定在他的治疗策略上冒险
and Morell decided to double down on his treatment strategy.
现在元首的药物清单上是一长串的强效药
The Führer would now receive a laundry list of stronger medications.
战后 根据据盟军的调查
According to Allied investigations after the war,
这些包括 维他命 溴化物 巴比妥酸盐
These included “vitamins, bromides, barbiturates,
强心剂 缓泻药比如蓖麻油
cardiac stimulants, laxatives such as castor oil,
针对肌无力的去氧皮质酮
desoxycorticosterone for muscular weakness,
源于女性胎盘 睾丸
hormones from both female placenta
和小公牛的前列腺的荷尔蒙 亚磺酰胺
and from testes and prostate of young bulls,
针对皮肤病的青霉素粉末和颠茄
sulphana-mides, penicillin powder for skin disorder and belladonna”.
以及列表最后的神奇药物——优可达
Added to this list would be the wonder drug eukodal,
可以说是特供鸦片和海洛的近亲
a designer opiate and close cousin of heroin,
也就是我们今天的氧可酮
today known as oxycodone.
在1944年7月 狼窝暗杀事件之后
In July 1944 following his assassination attempt at the Wolf’s Lair,
恢复中的希特勒开始每天摄入稀释的可卡因
a recovering Hitler would begin receiving daily doses of diluted cocaine
来治疗他的慢性鼻窦炎
to treat his chronic sinusitis.
到1945年 希特勒每天服用数十种药
By 1945 Hitler was taking dozens of pills a day
而且每隔几个小时就进行一次静脉注射
and taking intravenous injections every few hours.
在四月份 他的五十六岁生日
In April, on his 56th birthday,
柏林战争期间 希特勒发现
the Führer found the world closing in around him
自己快要被包围了
during the Battle of Berlin,
他在下撤到地堡的最后时刻之前
and dismissed members of his staff including Morell
解散了工作人员 包括莫雷尔
before descending for the last time into the Führer bunker.
就是这里 在他的最后时刻
It is here in his final hours
阿道夫·希特勒要面对其千年帝国的崩塌
that Adolf Hitler faced the collapse of the thousand-year Reich
和突然停药之后的不良反应
and possibly the crippling effects of severe drug withdrawal.
对战争的影响
IMPACT ON THE WAR
鉴于德国国民 军队 领导层
Upon learning that drug saw widespread use
对药物的普遍使用
by civilian, military and leadership elements of the Third Reich,
有人直接得出了一些有关其影响的结论
one is tempted to jump to conclusions about their effects.
其中的部分却言过其实
Some have gone so far as to claim
称没有兴奋剂 闪电战就不可能成功
that the blitzkrieg was only possible because of meth
而其他人将纳粹战争归咎于药物滥用
while others blame Nazi war crimes on drug abuse
并把希特勒描绘成口齿不清的瘾君子
and paint Hitler’s as a gibbering super junkie.
然而必须认识到 我们这么想
We must, however, realize that to do so
只是在探索历史上几乎不曾存在过的
would be to seek clear-cut, monocausal links in history
明确单一的因果联系
that rarely ever exist.
同样 闪电战也是产生于
In the same way that the blitzkrieg arose
不断发展的军事理论 后勤与工程建设
from evolving military doctrine, logistics and engineering,
纳粹政权的罪行是由于一系列
the crimes of the Nazi regime were made possible
广泛的政治 经济和社会的暗流涌动引起
by a wide variety of political, economic and societal undercurrents.
至于希特勒 药物使用并没有
As for Hitler, many of his worst tendencies
使他产生糟糕的意图 而更多是将其放大
were magnified rather than initiated by routine drug use.
同时 尽管如此
At the same time though,
我们也不能说 药物没有任何影响
we cannot go so far as to claim that drugs had no impact.
再次强调 情景很重要
Once again, context is important.
纳粹分子并不是特例
The Nazis were not the only ones intoxicated.
盟军士兵也有他们自己的药片
Allied soldiers were given their own go pills,
而且其他领导人如丘吉尔和斯大林
and other leaders such as Churchill and Stalin
因其嗜酒而臭名昭著
were notorious for their alcohol use.
其实 有些历史学家甚至指出
In fact, some historians have even pointed out
双方的药物使用甚至根本比不上
that drug use on both sides of the war was drowned out
更大规模的酒精消耗
by even more massive amounts of alcohol.
在战时的德国 啤酒消费增长了23%
In wartime Germany, beer consumption increased by 23%,
葡萄酒增长了200% 香槟则是500%
wine by 200% and champagne by 500%.
与其说二战的参与者们在进行闪电作战
It would appear that the participants of the Second World War
不如说是在浪费酒
were more wasted than blitzed.
最后 这应该是一个提醒
In the end, this should be a reminder
历史从不像某些人说的那样
the past is never as simple or sober
那么的简单明了
as some make it out to be.
如果对本话题感兴趣
If you found this topic interesting,
可以瞧瞧我们之前的有趣视频
check out these related videos about our fascinating past.
希望大家喜欢并订阅以了解更多历史
Be sure to like and subscribe for more history,
并在Patreon上支持我们未来的纪录片
and consider supporting future documentaries on Patreon.
谢谢观看
Thanks for watching.
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你可能不知道,二战时德国嗑药有多high

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