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动物世界里的性别其实远比雌雄要复杂 – 译学馆
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动物世界里的性别其实远比雌雄要复杂

Intersex Across the Animal Kingdom

我们倾向于认为生物的性行为跟基因密码有着些许联系
We tend to think of biological sex as having one of two distinct genetic codes: If your
如果你的性染色体-即你细胞中的第23条染色体-是X和Y,那么你就是
sex chromosomes – that is, the 23rd pair in your cells – are X and Y, then you’re
男性,倘若你是X和X,那么你就是女性
male, if you have X and X, you’re female.
但是,跟生物上许多事物一样,这个世界,并非那么简单
But, like so many things in biology, and the world, it’s not that simple.
人类和其他有性特征的动物-正如
Humans and other animals that have sex characteristics – that is, things like sex hormones, gonads,

and genitals – that don’t fit the male/female binary are considered intersex.
这种情况同样被称作
These conditions can also be called differences of sex development, or DSDs.
各种性发展差异可以影响生理外形,甚至
And there are a lot of various DSDs out there, which can affect physical appearance, or even
整个动物种群的行为
the behavior of an entire group of animals.
对人类而言,双性人大部分由基因造成,
In humans, intersex conditions are mostly caused by genetics, like variations in chromosomes
或是单个基因的变异
or in a single gene.
一些中间性的成因是染色体的性发展差异 表现在人类身上就是
Some kinds of intersex conditions are known as chromosomal DSDs, and in humans they’re
X与Y性染色体的不正常组合
linked to an unusual combination of X and Y sex chromosomes.
举个例子 如果一个XY个体多了一条X染色体那么他就成了XXY甚至是XXXY
If an XY individual has an extra X chromosome, for example, so they’re XXY, or even XXXY
这种结果造成的情况就是Klinefelter综合征(先天性曲细精管发育不全综合征)
– the result is a condition known as Klinefelter syndrome.
这条多余的X染色体能够影响一个人的睾丸工作
That extra X chromosome can affect how the person’s testes work, including how much
包括他们释放多少睾丸酮
testosterone they secrete.
低水平的睾丸酮会影响第二性征的发育
Lower levels of testosterone can affect how secondary sex characteristics develop, like
比如体毛和乳腺组织
body hair, or breast tissue.
一些有Klinefelter综合征的人通常比较高 大概是因为
And some people with Klinefelter syndrome might also be unusually tall, possibly because
X染色体上的身高决定基因
of a height-related gene on the X chromosome.
相反 也会有人患特纳综合症即只有一条X染色体而没有
By contrast, there’s also Turner syndrome, in which a person has just one X chromosome,
Y染色体
and no Y.
这种情况下 这个人就会发育女性的性特征跟正常的有两条
In this case, a person might start developing female sex characteristics, like someone with
X染色体的女性一样
two X chromosomes.
但是因为少了第二条X染色体她们的卵巢不会发育完全
But without a second copy of the X chromosome genes, their ovaries might not develop completely,
可能导致不能释放性激素和第二性征不能发育
which could result in the inability to secrete sex hormones and develop secondary sex characteristics.
一些有特纳综合症的人可能会比较矮因为他们缺失了
Some people with Turner syndrome might also be shorter, because they’re missing a copy
复制出的身高决定基因的那一部分
of that height gene.
并且有的人会患上更多更严重的病比如心脏缺损 糖尿病
And others might experience more serious health problems like heart defects, diabetes, and
和甲状腺素水平低下
low levels of thyroid hormone.
但是性征不全是决定于你是否是XX型 XY性或者二者皆不是
But sex characteristics aren’t just dependent on whether you’re XX, XY or neither.
由于单个基因的影响 激素也会产生性别发展差异 而这会影响性激素的
There are also hormonal DSDs, which interfere with how sex hormones are made and used, usually
产生量和作用量
because of individual genes.
这些基因上发生的改变可能会影响你身体的雄激素 这种激素
Alterations in these genes can affect how your body processes androgens, the hormones
通常是帮助雄性性征发育的也会影响雌激素和孕激素
that generally help develop male sex characteristics, or estrogens and progesterone, which help
而这个是对女性性征发育有帮助的
with female characteristics.
举个栗子 若雄激素受体基因产生突变意味着无论多少雄激素
Mutations in the androgen receptor gene, for example, mean that no matter how many androgens
游荡在你的血液之中 你的细胞都不会对它们产生任何反应
are floating around in your bloodstream, your cells can’t respond to them.
而这对于基因型为XY的个体来说就会导致一些女性第二性征的发育
In XY individuals, this can lead to the development of some female secondary sex characteristics
这种病叫做雄激素不敏感综合征
– a condition called androgen insensitivity syndrome.
另一方面 XX个体可能患上先天性肾上腺皮质增生症
On the other hand, XX individuals might experience a condition called congenital adrenal hyperplasia.
这种病是当身体产生的21—羟化酶不够时
This is when the body doesn’t produce enough of an enzyme known as 21-hydroxylase, which
就会造成雄性激素的过度生成因此就会加剧雄性第二性征的
results in the over production of androgens, and therefore the development of male secondary
发育
sex traits.
当然 中性不只是存在人类之中
But of course, intersex conditions aren’t only found in humans.
许多其他动物也是有性繁殖但不仅仅局限于雄性和雌性
Plenty of other animals can reproduce sexually, but have more than just males and females.
有些动物并没有明显区分开的两性特征它们多是雌雄同体 比如蜗牛
Some animals don’t actually have two separate sexes, and are hermaphroditic – like snails,
蛞蝓 蠕虫—这些动物同时具有雄性和雌性的生殖器官
slugs, and worms – which have both male and female reproductive organs.
还有些动物只有一种生殖器官 但是它们可以改变
Other animals just have one set of reproductive organs … but they can change.
例如小丑鱼 是群居动物 它们群体只有一对繁殖体 一只雌性鱼和
Clownfish, for example, live in social groups that consist of one breeding pair with a female
一只雄性鱼 再加上一群其他的不完全发育的雄性
and male, plus a group of other not-completely-developed males.
如果雌性育种鱼死掉了或者是被抓走了 雄性育种鱼的荷尔蒙产生就会改变
If the female dies, or is taken away for some reason, the breeding male’s hormone production
然后它的雄性生殖器官会消失并发育出雌性的生殖器官
changes so it loses its male reproductive organs and develops female ones.
这种由雄性到雌性的转变被称作雄性先熟主要是确保
This male-to-female change is called protandry, and is basically a way to make sure there’s
种群内部有且只有一对交配个体
always a mating pair without as much competition.
知道了这些就会让《海底总动员》这部电影看起来 嗯…有一点点不准确
Knowing this makes Finding Nemo seem … a little inaccurate.
因为它的爸爸会理所应当的成为它的新妈妈
Because his dad would actually become his new mom.
还有些鱼类可以从雌性变到雄叫做雌性先熟 还有的会
Other species of fish can change from female to male – called protogyny – or change
双向性反转 这取决于种群内部的育种压力
sex bidirectionally, depending on the pressure to breed.
科学家同样也发现许多我们认为可以明确区分雌雄的动物
Scientists have also discovered that a lot of animals that we think have distinct male
同样存在中间性问题
and female sexes, also experience intersex conditions.
研究者在一些物种的性器官解剖中 比如黑熊
Researchers have found variations in the reproductive anatomy in species like black bears,
斑鬣狗 和豹纹壁虎等 发现他们同样有染色体或激素的
spotted hyenas, and leopard geckos, which suggests that they have chromosomal or hormonal DSDs
性发展差异
too.
这仅仅是我们注意到了的几个物种
And this is just some of the stuff that we’ve noticed.
谁知道在这偌大的动物王国中有多少性别变异存在呢?
Who knows what other sex variations might be out there in the animal kingdom?
感谢收看这一期的科学秀 感谢我们的赞助商为大家带来这期节目
Thanks for watching this episode of SciShow, which was brought to you by our patrons on
感谢Patreon公司
Patreon.
不知你是否知道 在今年的最后四个月 我们正与Patreon公司
If haven’t heard about this, we’re doing something little different with Patreon for
做着不同以往的一些研究
the last four month of this year.
我们将利用这四个月时间众筹的资金
We are gonna take all that money the people give us last four month, and we are gonna
投入到一个全新的领域虽然我们还没有决定是哪个领域
put it into a brand new channel, and we haven’t decided what the channel is gonna be yet.
要么是科学秀生活 科学秀心理 或是科学秀健康
It’s either gonna be SciShow life, Scishow Psychology, or SciShow Health.
总之最后帮我们敲定选择的是我们的Patreon
And who’s gonna choose which for one of those things that’s gonna be is our Patreon
金主
patrons.
如果你想要声援这个决定 如果你想要出一点余力
So if you would like to have a voice in that decision, and also if you would like to give
让我们继续做这件酷毙了的事情 那么我不胜感激
us money so that we can continue doing cool stuff, I’m so thankful that we can, you
详情请参见 patreon.com/sicshow

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视频概述

中间性不神秘,勇敢探索生殖的奥秘 揭开身边动物生殖的面纱,了解更多自然知识

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