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任重道远的同声传译 – 译学馆
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任重道远的同声传译

Interpreter Breaks Down How Real-Time Translation Works | WIRED

这两名外交官正准备谈判
These two diplomats are about to begin a negotiation.
这位来自某个说西班牙语的国家
This one is from an unspecified Spanish speaking country,
而这位来自某个说英语的国家
and this one is from an unspecified English speaking country.
你好
Hello!
而这两人则是真正的口译员
And these are real interpreters.
我是巴利·斯拉特·奥森 从事会议口译员25年
And I’m Barry Slaughter Olsen, a conference interpreter with 25 years’ experience,
在联合国为外交官和国家领导人做口译
interpreting for diplomats and world leaders in places like the UN.
想到口译员时
When you think of interpreters,
脑海中首先浮现的场景大概是
scenes like these are probably the first to come to mind:
他们在隔音间为下面的政府官员进行实时口译
people in sound proof booths interpreting in real time to government officials below.
但口译员通常要在不对外开放的闭门会议工作
But interpreters often have to do their jobs in private closed door meetings.
这叫双向口译
This is called Bilateral Interpreting.
任何听说过特朗普和普京会议的人都知道
And as anyone who heard about the Trump-Putin meetings knows,
有些会议真的会限制房间里的人数
it’s a very real situation when certain meetings just have a limited number of people in a room.
而这些人要宣誓保密
And those people are sworn to secrecy.
以下将示范一般闭门会议的场景
This is a demonstration of what can typically happen in these meetings behind closed doors.
我们开始吧
Shall we begin?
事实上 所有人到达之前 工作就开始了
Actually, things began before anyone even arrived.
大多时候 大家会在会议开始前对术语达成一致
Most of the time, terms are agreed upon in advance of the meeting.
经过仔细商谈后 议程也草拟了下来
The agendas are carefully negotiated and outlined.
内容可包括武器生产 经济合作 水权问题等等
They can range from arms production to economic cooperation to water rights.
我们只需要一个能展开会议的合理话题
All we need is a plausible topic to get started,
比如说 海豚安全的金枪鱼捕捞活动
let’s say, dolphin-safe tuna fishing.
首先 口译员找准自己的位置
To start, our interpreters position themselves.
你或许会想 他们得在中间 这样才能听得清楚 对吧?
You’d think they’d be in the middle somewhere, because they gotta hear well, right?
然而 如果会议在媒体前召开
Well, for meetings in front of the press,
他们不会想成为焦点 或被媒体拍照
they don’t want to be the center of attention or appear in press photos.
看下他们在场边的位置
See how they are on the sidelines here.
在照片发布前 他们能轻而易举被裁剪掉
That’s so they can easily be cropped out of the pictures to be published later,
但这方法有时没用
which doesn’t always work out.
所以 会议开始前
So before this meeting begins,
必须要做些决定
there are things that need to be decided.
允许做记录吗?记录被保存了吗?有谁会参加?
Will recordings be permitted? Is a record being kept? Who’s going to attend?
但是这是双边闭门会议 因此与会者只有在场的四人
But this is a closed door bilateral meeting, so it’ll just be these four.
口译分为两种 同声传译和交替传译
Now there’re two styles of interpretation: simultaneous and consecutive.
交替传译在外交场合中最常用
Consecutive is the most common style of interpreting in diplomatic situations.
请看这个例子
Here’s an example.
我好久没来这里了
It’s been a while since I’ve been here.
我很高兴回来 谢谢款待
I’m so excited to be back. Thank you for having me.
然后
And then,
口译员等发言者停顿后
The interpreter waits until the speaker pauses,
开始口译
and then interprets.
我国很高兴能与贵国政府再次合作
We’re very happy to be able to collaborate again with the government of your country.
很简单 对吗?
Simple, right?
但是 如果发言者不停地说 又如何?
But what happens if the speaker goes on and on without pausing?
口译员几乎不会逐字翻译
Interpreters rarely translate word for word.
相反 我们会记住特定的观点 然后照着翻译
Instead, we remember specific ideas and translate those ideas accordingly.
但当发言者说话时间很长
But when the speaker goes on and on for a long time,
口译员就要依赖笔记
interpreters rely on note-taking.
我们想授权贵国金枪鱼加工者 使用海豚友好标签
We want to authorize the use of the Dolphin-Friendly Label by your country’s tuna processors.
这些符号代表了发言者的观点
These symbols represent the speaker’s ideas.
但每个口译员记录方式各异
But each interpreter has their own style.
请看三名口译员对同一句话所做的笔记
Watch as three different interpreters take notes on the same sentence.
我们想授权贵国金枪鱼加工者 使用海豚友好标签
We want to authorize the use of the Dolphin-Friendly Label by your country’s tuna processors.
但我们必须采取可靠方式 核查授权的设备 和捕鱼行为
But we must have a reliable way to verify the use of authorized equipment and fishing practices.
通常 口译员提前想好符号
Interpreters usually come up with the symbols beforehand.
从凯蒂的这张小抄可以看到
And as you can see here on Katty’s cheat sheet,
她仔细思索了什么符号对于这一场会议最为有用
she carefully thought about what would be most useful for this particular meeting.
DFL代表海豚友好标签
The DFL stands for Dolphin-Friendly Label.
方框中 TU 指代捕捉到的金枪鱼
The TU in a box refers to tuna that’s being caught.
你马上理解了
You’ll get the idea.
现在 看看凯蒂将笔记翻译成西班牙语
Now let’s watch as Katty interprets her own notes into Spanish.
我们想授权贵国金枪鱼加工者
使用海豚友好标签
但我们必须采取可靠方式 核查授权的设备
以及捕鱼行为
现在 看看同声传译
Now let’s switch to simultaneous interpretation.
同声传译通常用到耳机和麦克风
Simultaneous interpretation is usually used with earpieces and microphones,
口译员在隔音间工作
and with interpreters working from a sound proof booth,
但我们此次示范将不会有任何设备
but we won’t have equipment in this demonstration.
如场景所示 当我们坐在他人旁边时
When we’re right next to another person like in this scenario,
我们可以使用Chuchotage这个法语词的意思为”耳语传译”
we can employ what we call Chuchotage, which means whispering in French.
Chuchotage:在靠近第三方的位置对一个人进行的耳语传译
但这通常不理想
This usually isn’t ideal.
长时间耳语对声带不好
Whispering for a long time is bad for the vocal cords.
而且房间的杂音
It can also be hard to hear
比如通风设备的声音 让人很难听清他人说话
due to ambient noise in the room, like ventilation.
现在 我们来讨论节奏
Now, let’s talk about pacing.
同声传译中
In simultaneous interpretation,
你要尽量与发言者的讲话保持最佳的距离
you try to maintain an optimal distance from the original speaker.
这种做法叫Decalage或者“听说时差” 我们称为EVS
This is referred to as Decalage or Ear-Voice Span, we all call it E.V.S.
所以 当其中一名外交官开始讲话时
So when one diplomat starts speaking,
使用耳语传译的人应该会在这里开始
the person employing Chuchotage would probably start here.
我完全明白贵国消费者的喜好
I understand perfectly the preferences of the consumers in your country,
因此 我们进行这次会议 是为了确定……
and that is why we are coming together to identify…
即使发言者每分钟说100-110个词
Even if the speaker is speaking at 100 to 110 words per minute,
研究显示这是最佳口译速度
which research tell us is the optimal speed for interpreting,
口译员仍要找到最佳的EVS
the interpreter still has to figure out the optimal E.V.S.
这就是问题所在
Here’s the problem.
口译员越是落后于外交官的讲话
The further back in the diplomat’s speech the interpreter is,
口译员要保存在短期记忆中的内容就越多
the more the interpreter has to keep in their short term memory.
他们口译时需要边听边整理内容
They’re listening and processing as they’re interpreting.
要做的事太多了
It’s a lot.
这是高质量的海豚 海豚?
It’s high quality dolphin. Dolphin?
但是 要是口译内容与发言时间过于接近
But get too close to the original speaker’s words,
他们或许会搞砸一些事 如语法 句式和风格
and they may screw up things like grammar, syntax and style.
这些喜好 我们明白这些喜好 国家的喜好……
The preferences of the, we understand the preferences of the preferences of the country of…
你在说什么?
What are you talking about?
当然 口译员容易疲劳 精疲力竭
And of course, interpreters are prone to fatigue and burnout.
口译员会在连续口译约30分钟后开始疲劳
Fatigue will hit at around 30 minutes of straight interpreting.
所以很多时候 同传译员会每隔30分钟进行替换
This is why simultaneous interpreters often switch out in intervals of 30 minutes or less.
如果撑到极限 口译员会十分痛苦
If pushed to our limits, interpreters can really suffer.
你可能记得2009年的那起事件
You may recall the 2009 incident,
当时 穆阿迈尔·卡扎菲的口译员在联合国
in which Muammar Khadafy’s interpreter collapsed at the UN,
做了超过75分钟的同声传译后崩溃了
after simultaneously interpreting for over 75 minutes.
如果交谈变得情绪化 或者发言者变得无礼 会怎么样
So what happens if the conversation turns emotionalor the speaker becomes rude?
噢 朋友 我听完你的发言
Well, my friend, I’ve listened to what you have to say
得出的唯一结论是 你是个大傻瓜
and the only conclusion I can come up with is that you are a damn fool.
口译员并不是调解人
Interpreters are not meant to be mediators.
我们仅仅忠实翻译发言者的信息
Our only job is to stay true to the message of the speaker.
如果某人变得粗鲁或气愤 如果有威胁语言
If someone becomes rude or angry, if threats are made,
我们应该如实地口译威胁内容
then we are supposed to interpretthose threats faithfully.
所以 这种情况下 口译员不会说
So in this situation, the interpreter would not say…
我能得出的唯一结论就是你有点鲁莽
这是个如实口译的例子
And here is an example of a faithful interpretation.
我能得出的唯一结论就是你完全是个白痴
即使发言者变得情绪化 比划着手势
Although the speaker may become emotional and gesticulate,
口译员不应模仿发言者的行为
the interpreter is not going to parrot the behavior of the speaker.
不应该这样做
This is not the way.
你怎么能这样对我?我以为我们是朋友
How could you do this to me? I thought we were friends.
这会更加真实
This is more realistic.
你怎么能这样对我?我以为我们是朋友
How could you do this to me? I thought we were friends.
情势已变得更加紧张 或许开个玩笑能缓和情绪
So the situation has gotten quite intense. Maybe a joke would be helpful to lighten the mood.
但笑话是最难被口译的
But jokes are some of the most difficult things to interpret,
因为翻译很容易丢失笑话的内涵
because they can get lost in translation easily.
海豚溅了同伴一身水 他会对同伴说什么?
What would one dolphin say to the other after splashing him?
你对鼠海豚这么做了
You did that on porpoise.
算了 这笑话在英语中没有意义
Never mind. This joke barely makes sense in English.
在西班牙语中 这完全起不到任何作用
In Spanish, it completely doesn’t work,
因为 porpoise 是 marsopa而 purpose 是 proposito
because porpoise is “marsopa” and purpose is “proposito”.
这是个难以翻译的双关语
Untranslatable pun.
尝试幽默容易失败 口译员无能为力
Attempts at humor are often lost and there’s not much an interpreter can do.
据说有一位口译员遇到难以翻译的笑话时
There is an anecdote about an interpreter, who, when faced with an untranslatable joke,
就简单的说
simply said,
发言者刚刚讲了一个笑话 但是不好翻译 现在请笑一下
哈哈
Haha…
这个好 这个真好
That was a good one. That was a good one.
当然 我们今天看到的
Of course, what we’ve seen today
只不过是更冗长且艰难的谈判的一小部分
is a tiny excerpt of what are often longer and arduous negotiations.
一场双边闭门会议到此结束
And that concludes a bilateral meeting behind closed doors.
工作艰苦卓绝
This job is tough
我们需要处理很多事情 还要能够有效 准确地口译
to juggle the many things we have to do, to be able to interpret well and accurately.
但这项工作至关重要
But this job is important,
因为这能让国与国之间 人与人之间进行交谈
because it’s what makes communication possible between countries and between peoples.
我从事这项工作25年 不会为任何事情放弃
I’ve been at it for 25 years and I wouldn’t trade it for the world.
巴利将为一场金融演讲进行口译
Barry will interpret a financial speech,
我们看到拉丁美洲和加勒比地区的GDP有所增长
We have seen that the GDP of Latin American and Caribbean has increased.
然后 凯蒂将为两个朋友之间的短信内容进行口译
And then Kathy will interprete a text message exchange between two friends.
我是说 你看过《杀死伊芙》吗?它并不逼真 但我喜欢
I mean have you ever seen Killing Eve. It’s not that realistic but I love it.
你在开玩笑吗?我从没看过
Are you kidding? I’ve never seen it.

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关于口语译员的那些事

听录译者

红宝石

翻译译者

Lizzy

审核员

审核员B

视频来源

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=twCpijr_GeQ

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