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来自莎士比亚的羞辱 – 译学馆
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来自莎士比亚的羞辱

Insults by Shakespeare

为什么当我们听到莎士比亚时我们感到畏缩?
Why do we cringe when we hear "Shakespeare?"
如果你问我,我会说这通常是由于他所使用的言辞。
If you ask me, it’s usually because of his words.
所有这些你(thou)、你的(thine)、因此(therefores)
All those thines and thous and therefores
为什么你作画之类的词藻会有些恼人的意味
and wherefore-art-thous can be more than a little annoying.
但是我们应该想想为什么他这么受欢迎
But you have to wonder, why is he so popular?
为什么他的戏剧一场有一场的重演比其它剧作家多得多
Why have his plays been made and remade more than any other playwright?
这是因为他用的话语
It’s because of his words.
回到十五世纪晚期和十六世纪早期
Back in the late 1500s and early 1600s,
那是人们拥有的最好的手段
that was the best tool that a person had,
这里有许多要谈的事情
and there was a lot to talk about.
然而,大部分的作品都令人沮丧,
However, most of it was pretty depressing.
你知道当时盛行黑死病
You know, with the Black Plague and all.
莎士比亚用了大量的词藻
Shakespeare does use a lot of words.
他最令人印象深刻的成就之一[br]就是他对侮辱的使用。
One of his most impressive accomplishments is his use of insults.
他们需要统一整体的观众
They would unify the entire audience;
不管你坐在那个座位,你都可以因为台上进行的演出而发笑
and no matter where you sat, you could laugh at what was going on onstage.
在戏剧的布景下因为词汇或者特殊的对话发笑
Words, specifically dialogue in a drama setting,
或者因为其它不同的原因
are used for many different reasons:
它们可以设置剧中情绪的基调,
to set the mood of the scene,
它们可以增添更多氛围,
to give some more atmosphere to the setting,
或者发展人物角色之间的关系
and to develop relationships between characters.
嬉笑怒骂在短暂而激烈的情节中进行
Insults do this in a very short and sharp way.
让我们首先转到哈姆雷特上面来
Let’s first go to "Hamlet."
就在这对话前,
Right before this dialogue,
波洛涅斯是奥菲利亚的父亲,这个女儿与王子哈姆雷特陷入爱河
Polonius is the father of Ophelia, who is in love with Prince Hamlet.
国王克劳迪亚斯设法指出为什么王子哈姆雷特是在装疯
King Claudius is trying to figure out why Prince Hamlet is acting so crazy
自从国王娶了哈姆雷特王子的母亲
since the king married Prince Hamlet’s mother.
波洛涅斯试图利用他的女儿从哈姆雷特王子那里获取消息
Polonius offers to use his daughter to get information from Prince Hamlet.
然后我们来到第二幕第二场景
Then we go into Act II Scene 2.
波洛纽斯:“阁下,您认识我吗?”
Polonius: "Do you know me, my lord?"
哈姆雷特:很熟啊,你是个鱼贩(fishmonger)。
Hamlet: "Excellent well. You’re a fishmonger."
波洛纽斯:" 不,阁下。"
Polonius: "Not I, my lord."
哈姆雷特:“我希望你是个诚实的人,
Hamlet: "Then I would you were so honest a man."
现在虽然你甚至不知道鱼贩的意思
Now, even if you did not know what "fishmonger" meant,
你可以看一下上下文的线索
you can use some contextual clues.
一:波洛涅斯是用消极方式演绎,所以他一定是个反面人物
One: Polonius reacted in a negative way, so it must be bad.
二:鱼闻起来腥,所以他一定是坏人
Two: Fish smell bad, so it must be bad.
三:贩子;听起来就不像个好词。
And three: "monger" just doesn’t sound like a good word.
所以从对一个语汇的[br]真实意义毫无所悉开始,
So from not even knowing the meaning,
你正开始建构一些关系的特质,
you’re beginning to construct some characterization
这样的特质定义了哈姆雷特[br]和波洛纽斯之间的关系,
of the relationship between Hamlet and Polonius,
这关系并不很好。
which was not good.
但如果你继续往下探索,[br]"鱼贩"意谓着某种类型的中间商,
But if you dig some more, "fishmonger" means a broker of some type,
在这个背景下,意味着,他就像个皮条客,
and in this setting, would mean like a pimp,
波洛纽斯就像中间贩,[br]利用他女儿攒钱牟利,
like Polonius is brokering out his daughter for money,
他做一些讨好国王的事情
which he is doing for the king’s favor.
这也告诉你哈姆雷特不像他自己声称的那么疯癫
This allows you to see that Hamlet is not as crazy as he’s claiming to be,
同时更加加剧了角色之间的冲突
and intensifies the animosity between these two characters.
想听其它的例子吗?
Want another example?
罗密欧和朱丽叶;有这莎士比亚戏剧的最极致的侮辱
"Romeo and Juliet" has some of the best insults of any of Shakespeare’s plays.
它演绎了两个家族之间
It’s a play about two gangs,
和一对命运多舛的恋人引领自己生命的剧作。
and the star-crossed lovers that take their own lives.
然而,面临任何的阻挠
Well, with any fisticuffs
你知道有这一些严肃味道的谈话会进行
you know that there is some serious smack talk going on.
你并不感到失望。
And you are not disappointed.
在第一幕第一场,从一开始
In Act I Scene 1, right from the get-go
剧本向我们展示了不信任和仇恨的水平
we are shown the level of distrust and hatred
横亘在这两个家族之间,凯普莱特和蒙塔古会面了
the members of the two families, the Capulets and Montagues, meet.
格雷戈里:“当我走过我将反对,然后将他们像清单一样带走”
Gregory: "I will frown as I pass by, and let them take it as they list."
桑普森:“反对,他们居然胆敢,我将咬我的拇指指向他们(侮辱他们)。”
Sampson: "Nay, as they dare, I will bite my thumb at them,
这些使得他们萌受耻辱,如果他们忍受这些。
which is a disgrace to them, if they bear it."
恩特亚伯拉罕和巴尔塔萨
Enter Abraham and Balthasar.
亚伯拉罕:“你是对着我们咬你的拇指吗先生?”
Abraham: "Do you bite your thumb at us, sir?"
桑普森:“是的我确实是对着你们咬的我的拇指!”
Sampson: "I do bite my thumb, sir."
亚伯拉罕:“先生你竟然对着我们咬你的拇指?”
Abraham: "Do you bite your thumb at us, sir?"
好的,这样的情节发展怎么来帮助我们理解情绪和人物。
Okay, so how does this development help us understand mood or character?
好吧,让我们分解这部分重点在侮辱上面。
Well, let’s break it down to the insult.
咬大拇指现在来看好像是大人物,
Biting your thumb today may not seem like a big deal,
但是莎士比亚说的意思是侮辱他们。
but Sampson says it is an insult to them.
如果他们这样做,就一定属于侮辱。
If they take it so, it must have been one.
这段向我们展现了他们之间的仇恨程度
This begins to show us the level of animosity
在为两个家族工作的人之间展开
between even the men who work for the two Houses.
你一般不用对某些人做任何事情
And you normally would not do anything to someone
除非你想煽动他们进入一场战斗
unless you wanted to provoke them into a fight,
这件事确实将要发生
which is exactly what’s about to happen.
更深入的看,在当时这部剧写的所谓的咬你手指
Looking deeper, biting your thumb in the time in which the play was written
也像现在向某人示以手指的手势一样
is like giving someone the finger today.
一种非常强烈的感觉
A pretty strong feeling comes with that,
所以现在我们渐渐能够感觉到舞台的张力了
so we now are beginning to feel the tension in the scene.
在稍后的一场,来自凯普莱特家族的提伯尔特
Later on in the scene, Tybalt, from the House of the Capulets,
对势不两立的蒙太古家族成员[br]班伏里奥展示了一个明确示范,
lays a good one on Benvolio from the House of the Montagues.
提博尔特:“什么,你在这些没了心脏的雄鹿之间作画?
Tybalt: "What, art thou drawn among these heartless hinds?
你转弯吧,班伏里奥,我把你看做死人。”
Turn thee, Benvolio, and look upon thy death."
班伏里奥:“我知道,但请保持平静,举起你的刀剑吧,
Benvolio: "I do but keep the peace; put up thy sword,
或者和我一起用它把这个人大卸八块。”
or manage it to part these men with me."
提伯尔特:"什么?你既拔出了剑,休谈和平!
Tybalt: "What, drawn and talk of peace!
我痛恨这个词,如同我痛恨地狱,[br]和痛恨你们所有蒙太古家族人一般。
I hate the word, as I hate hell, all Montagues, and thee.
打你,懦夫!”
Have at thee, coward!"
好的,失去心脏的雄鹿
Okay, heartless hinds.
我们也知道了,不是什么好词。
We know that once again, it’s not a good thing.
这两个家族相互憎恨这对方,这样做是火上浇油
Both families hate each other, and this is just adding fuel to the fire.
展示这个讽刺者有多坏
But just how bad is this stinger?
失去心脏的雄鹿指的是懦夫的意思
A heartless hind is a coward,
同时也是在他们自己人和敌对家族面前叫嚣
and calling someone that in front of his own men, and the rival family,
意思是这里将要有一场打斗
means there’s going to be a fight.
提博尔特主要是对着班伏里奥叫嚣
Tybalt basically calls out Benvolio,
为了保全他的荣誉班伏里奥必须去战斗
and in order to keep his honor, Benvolio has to fight.
这段对话向我们展现了一场好戏
This dialogue gives us a good look
在这两个人物之间进行刻画
at the characterization between these two characters.
提博尔特认为蒙塔古除了是个懦弱的狗之外什么都不是
Tybalt thinks that the Montagues are nothing but cowardly dogs,
对他们没有任何的尊重
and has no respect for them.
再一次为戏剧表演增加了张力
Once again, adding dramatic tension to the scene.
好吧,在这防止剧透吧
Okay, now here’s a spoiler alert.
提博尔特怒火中烧对蒙塔古强烈的憎恨
Tybalt’s hotheadedness and severe hatred of the Montagues
我们文学研究者称他为悲剧的始作俑者
is what we literature people call his hamartia,
同时也是他垮台的原因
or what causes his downfall.
好的
Oh, yes.
他的跌倒由罗密欧一手来完成。
He goes down at the hands of Romeo.
所以当你们读莎士比亚的时候,停下来思考一下他的用词,
So when you’re looking at Shakespeare, stop and look at the words,
因为这些词藻确实能够告诉你一些事情。
because they really are trying to tell you something.

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