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探秘世界最大粒子加速器

Inside The World's Largest Particle Accelerator

大型强子对撞机是人类工程与智慧的结晶
The Large Hadron Collider… it’s a massive beautiful piece of human ingenuity, engineering
而且……
and…
等等 那不是大型强子对撞机
Wait a minute, that’s not the LHC.
这才是大型强子对撞机
This is the Large Hadron Collider.
这 就是大型强子对撞机 缩写LHC
This is the Large Hadron Collider or the LHC for short.
这个长达27km的粒子加速器
It’s a 27 kilometer particle accelerator
坐落于法国—瑞士交界处地下300米
sitting 300 meters under the border of France and Switzerland.
它是世界上最大的原子对撞机
It’s an atom smasher, the biggest in the world.
由数以千计的工程师 科学家和数学家设计制造
Designed and built by thousands of engineers, scientists and mathematicians
他们怀揣着同一个目标
from across our tiny planet with the goal of
即通过粒子对撞实验
helping other scientists learn about things of
帮助其他科学家了解极小的微粒
incredibly small size by smashing them together.
打开的过程被称为对撞
These smashings are called collisions.
这绝对是他们最感兴趣的东西
“This is a really all they’re interested in.
他们对碰撞情有独钟
They’re interested in collisions, collisions, collisions.”
这是麦克·莱蒙特 LHC运行组的组长
That’s Mike Lamont, he’s the Operations Group Leader working on the LHC.
他的工作是“发射粒子束”
It’s his job to “run beam.”
粒子束是指LHC中充斥的质子束
Beam being nerdy lingo for bunches of hydrogen protons that fill up the LHC.
LHC就是内含两束相对方向粒子束的环
The LHC is a ring containing two beams going in opposite directions!
如果近距离观察
But if we look closer
粒子束其实是由许多束质子组成的
that beam is actually made up of bunches of protons.
每一束含大约一千亿个质子
In fact,each bunch as about 100 billion protons each.
一束大约30厘米长 而在环内运行时
“These bunches are about 30 centimeters long, typically about a millimeter, dimensions as
近似1毫米
they’re going around the ring.
就像一条又长又细 逐渐拉薄的意大利面
SO,think about a long, thin, tapered, piece of spaghetti.”
强超导磁铁让粒子束
Incredibly powerful superconducting magnets keep the beams flying at nearly the speed
持续以亚光速飞驰 最终使它们相撞
of light with the aim of making these proton bunches hit.
我们让这些“发丝”穿过彼此 得到大约30次碰撞
“We pass these thin hairs through each other, and we get about 30 collisions.
多数质子会错过碰撞 但继续在环内运行
Most of the protons just miss each other and they carry on around the ring, they come back
运行一圈后回归 再次碰撞
one turn later and they can do it again.”
错过对撞的原因是原子内的大部分是空的
And the reason why they miss each other is because atoms are mostly empty space.
所以使它们碰撞相当困难
So getting them to collide is incredibly difficult.
就像相隔10公里 相对发射针一样的箭
It would be like standing 10 kilometers apart and trying to shoot two needle-thin arrows
使其半路撞击
at each other so they hit halfway.
所以关键是大量的尝试
So, the key is to do this a lot.
今年的目标 是一秒8亿次碰撞
“The target this year, to put it in context, is about 800 million collisions a second,
这就要求我们很努力的工作达到那个速率
so we really have to work hard to get that rate.”
每秒数亿次的碰撞 真疯狂!
Hundreds of millions per second is insane!
试想控制以亚光速运动的质子
Imagine trying to control a proton traveling at nearly the speed of light.
为控制粒子束不脱离轨道 LHC使用偶极磁铁
To keep the bunches on track, the LHC uses dipole magnets (two magnets).
但当需要引导质子时 则使用四极磁铁
But, when they need to steer the protons, they use quadrupole magnets(or four)
每个罗经点一个 产生每米3~4公吨的作用力
One on each compass point,applying three to four hundred metric tons of force per meter.
我们用强大的四极磁操控并压缩“面条”
“We take our pieces of spaghetti and focus them down with very strong Quadrupole Magnets,
就像透镜 把它们压缩至人类发丝的直径
which are like lenses, to get them down to the diameter of a human hair as we pass them
以使他们在实验中心穿过彼此
through each other in the center of the experiments.”
这就是LHC中发生的一切
And that’s why the LHC is in the business of collisions.
LHC有点像不提供电的能源公司
The LHC is sort of like your power company, but they’re not providing electricity, instead
它产生碰撞
they’re generating collisions.
碰撞越多越好!
More collisions, more better!
他们尽最大努力使这些质子束进行碰撞
They spend all their effort to try and get these bunches of hydrogen ions to hit
在其他科学家们的实验中
inside of other scientists’ experiments.
碰撞是巨大的 但如果质子在一个无人树林里碰撞
Of course, having a collision is great, but if a proton collides in the woods and no one’s
它会产生玻色子吗?
there does it make a boson?
没人知晓
Who knows.
科学家们仍需观测每一个时刻的数据
Scientists still have to be watching at just the right fraction of a second
以期在合适的时间发现新粒子
to discover a new particle.
这正是实验的作用
That’s where these experiments come in.
他们在LHC环上设置一个碰撞点
They set on the LHC ring at collision points,and they’re probably what you think of when
这大概是你听到大型强子对撞机时的所想到的
you hear Large Hadron Collider.
最著名的是ATLAS和CMS 2013年在那儿发现了希格斯波色子
The famous ones are ATLAS and CMS which spotted the famous Higgs-Boson back in 2013.
它被叫做紧凑型微子螺线管 但实际上它一点也不紧凑
“it’s called C-M-S Compact Muon Solenoid however it is really not compact.
那就是一个叫法 你能看见这个尺度一点都不紧凑
It’s a relative term, as you can see, nothing of that size is compact.”
塔莉卡·波色博士 此刻正坐在CMS的控制室 等待着
Dr. Talika Bose, sits in the control room of the CMS waiting for an exciting collision
她的三层实验室中一次激动人心的碰撞 这多亏了LHC
to happen inside her three-storey science experiment, all thanks to the LHC.
每25纳秒 就有一次碰撞
“Every twenty five nanoseconds… you have a bunch colliding with another bunch.
假设这有一个质子 那有一个有质子 它们都有核
You may have a proton here and a proton there, which has a heart.
在我们所说的破核事件发生之后会出现粒子混乱
What we call shattering a heart event and out of that come out a whole mess of particles”
这就是她所说的
This is what she’s talking about.
当两个质子对撞时 是这样的
When two protons collide, it looks like this.
对你我而言 这看起来像一团乱的粒子但对于波色博士而言
To you and me this may look like a whole mess of particle parts but to Dr. Bose, this ‘mess’
这个“混乱”可以告诉你质子里有什么
can actually tell you what’s inside a proton.
从这我们可以得出两条重要信息
“There are two important pieces of information that we get from this, one is whether it’s
第一 它如何偏转
curving this way or it’s curving that way.
这能表明它是带正电还是带负电
That tell us whether it’s positively charged or negatively charged.
还有偏转半径多大因为它可以这样偏转
Then how large is the radius of curvature, because it could be curving like this or it
它也能以更大的半径偏转 与其直接相关的是
could be curving in a much larger radius and this has a direct relationship with essentially
粒子自身速度的大小以及动量的大小
what the velocity and consequently what the momentum of the particle is.”
这就是LHC厉害的地方
And this is why the LHC is awesome.
波色博士就像是在观察数百万的质子车祸
Dr. Bose is basically watching millions of proton car crashes
以便对汽车的构造进行逆向工程
in order to reverse-engineer the automobile.
轰击原子能揭示原子的结构
Smashing atoms together can reveal what they’re made of!
物理学家们没有发现注射器 塑料 钢铁和玻璃 而是发现了中子 k中介子
But instead of injectors, plastics, steel and glass, physicists find neutrons, kaons,
π介子 μ介子和中微子
pions, muons, and neutrinos.
另外 物理学家将这些粒子合称为
By the way, physicists call particles are made of these things…
高能强子
HADRONS.
因此称为 “大型”
Hence the name LARGE.
“强子”
HADRON.
“对撞机”
COLLIDER.
这些质子碰撞能帮助物理学家揭示微观结构上
Proton collisions like these help physicists reveal exactly what these tiny structures
构成世界的物质是由什么组成的
that make up our universe are made of.
这项技术很先进 同样科学也在一如既往地迅速发展
The technology is super advanced, but the science is the same as it’s always been.
我们其实就是分开东西 以期了解它们如何运作
We’re simply breaking things apart, hoping to understand how they tick.

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视频概述

一起走进世界上最大的强子对撞机,看看它是如何工作的,以及它的使命是什么。

听录译者

收集自网络

翻译译者

Anne

审核员

审核团EM

视频来源

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=328pw5Taeg0

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