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漫画家的世界 – 译学馆
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漫画家的世界

Inside a cartoonist's world - Liza Donnelly

什么才是真正的漫画?
What is a cartoon really?
很多人都喜欢漫画,
Many of us love cartoons,
我们大多数人是看着漫画长大的
most of us grew up reading them
或者听它们
or having them read to us.
事实是,漫画在我们身边已经存在了很长一段时间。
The fact is, cartoons have been around a long time.
漫画有很多种类型:
There are all kinds of cartoons:
连环漫画
strip comics,
连环漫画册,
comic books,
政治漫画,
political cartoons,
单面板的漫画
single-panel cartoons,
图像小说
graphic novels,
网络漫画,
web comics,
动画,
animation,
讽刺漫画,
caricature,
什么都有。
there is something for everyone.
无论他们以什么形式出现
No matter the form they come in,
动画都能从读者那得到各种各样的情感
cartoons elicit all kinds of emotions from the viewer
——开心,伤心,生气,热闹,平静。
– happiness, sadness, anger, hilarity, calm –
并且可以一瞬间传播想法
and can transmit ideas in an instant.
动画是一种全球化的,为人们喜爱和理解的媒体,
Cartoons are a universal medium enjoyed and understood
打破了国家的界限
around the world and across borders.
这就是这种艺术形式经久不衰的原因
This is why they have survived so long as an art form.
但是它是如何做到,看起来如此简单
But how can a medium that is on the surface so simple
却有如此大的影响力,有时又如此充满意义呢
have so much influence and at times be so meaningful?
那就让我们来看看动画是什么
Let’s look at what a cartoon is.
它始于构思
It starts with an idea.
这个灵感可以是口头的,
The idea can be verbal,
写出来的,
written in words,
又或者是看到的。
or it can be visual.
一个可以看的见的灵感仅仅是
A visual idea is simply
一张图片,
a picture,
一幅绘画
a drawing,
一幅涂鸦
a doodle.
这些灵感来源于不同的地方
These ideas come from a variety of places.
漫画家可以从观察生活,
Cartoonists might find the idea from observing life,
读一张报纸,
reading a newspaper,
网上搜集中找到灵感。
trawling online.
它来自于别人说的话
It can come from a sentence someone said
或是一个从电视上听到的字
or a single word heard on television.
漫画家就像海绵一样
Cartoonists are like sponges;
他们从人群,地点,习惯,服装和行为中吸收经验和灵感,
they soak up people, places, mannerisms, clothing, and behavior.
有时他们会草草地把它们记在
Sometimes they might jot them down
一本随身携带的小黑本上
in a little black book that they carry around with them.
其他时候,这种灵感的吸收只是为了让漫画家坐在桌边时,
Other times, it is just soaked up into the cartoonist’s brain
灵感可以顺利从头脑中挤出来。
only to be squeezed out later when she is sitting at her drawing table.
漫画家不仅意识到
Not only does a cartoonist have to be aware
她正在看见的
of what she is seeing visually,
她也能听到她自己的想法
but she has to listen to herself think.
换一种说法,采用信息,
In other words, take the incoming information
挑选它,塑造它,然后,把它运用到动画中
and select it, shape it, and then use it for a cartoon.
你现在就已经有了个创意了,
Now that you have an idea,
或者你想到了些可用于动画的好主意,
or something you think could be good for a cartoon,
是时候去塑造出来了,
it’s time to shape it.
一部动画就像是一场戏剧演出
A cartoon is like a staged play.
一个漫画家就是编剧
A cartoonist is playwright,
导演
director,
舞台设计者
stage designer,
动作指导
choreographer,
和角色设计
and costume designer.
一部动画有角色
A cartoon has characters,
一个场景
a set,
对话
dialogue,
甚至一条主线
even if one line,
和幕后故事
and a backstory.
角色设定必须切合总体大意,
The characters must be dressed to fit the idea,
自然表达,并传递这个观点,
speak in a way that is natural and forwards the idea
或是给出妙语
or gives the punchline.
漫画中的每一点都必须是
Nothing should be in the cartoon
有用的,是完善这个创意所必须的。
that is not absolutely necessary for the advancement of the idea.
这这信息和词语有图像和文字
The image and words have to <i>dance</i> together
还有一中方法是制作场景
in a way that makes sense.
这可以是很美好的舞蹈或者是很尴尬的舞蹈。
It could be a graceful dance, or an awkward dance,
如果这是幽默或者是想法的一部分。
if that is part of the humor or idea.
接着开始实行了。
And then the execution.
有些漫画家用铅笔勾画出他们的想法
Some cartoonists sketch the idea with pencil
然后放在灯箱用钢笔描线。
then ink it with pen using a light box.
其他人则在脑海中想象出整个画面,
Others visualize the image in their head
然后直接用纸笔画出来。
and draw directly on the paper in pen.
漫画使用笔有多种:
Different kinds of pens are used:
毡尖笔,钢笔或者是羽毛笔
felt-tip, mechanical pen, or a crow quill.
纸是很轻或者很重
Paper can be light-weight or heavy-bond.
许多漫画家会用一把黑色水彩和刷子
Many cartoonists add gray tone, called a wash,
添上灰色的色调,叫洗刷。
by using black watercolor and a brush.
其他使用柔软的钢笔
Others use a soft pencil for the tone.
颜色通常都会直接使用水彩
Color is usually created by using watercolor.
一幅完成的画可以拿去扫描
A finished cartoon can then be scanned and adjusted,
然后把这些画放在photoshop里
and the caption can be added on the computer with Photoshop.
新的科技是对漫画家帮助创作她们的漫画
New technologies are emerging for the cartoonist’s use in creating her cartoon.
photoshop可以提供工具给颜色和图像
Photoshop can serve as a tool for color and image.
马上就能画好通过电脑画板和画笔
Some may draw directly on a tablet with a stylus.
可以把想法很好的串联起来。
The choices at this stage of creation work in tandem with the idea,
并且常常加上最后我们需要的标题。
and often when the final caption is added,
这给了我们调整的机会
it gets adjusted yet again.
但还是有一些不能改掉
But, little is left to chance,
除了,也许,一些已经涂上的水彩
except, perhaps, some of the watercolor.
这些功能都能很一致的互相配合。
All these elements function in concert with one another.
文字就像是一个舞蹈,注意,和想象
It’s almost like a dance of words, ideas, and images
为了这个漫画他们会很少在一起工作
that work together in order to make the cartoona timeless, resilient work of art.

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