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昆虫历险记!第一部分

Insect Adventure, Part One

《大脑能量》
We’re here today because
我们今天来这里的原因是
the town of Hanover and Jo Daviess Conservation Foundation
汉诺威镇和乔•戴维斯保护基金会
have acquired this old soybean field
买下了这块荒废了的大豆田
and they’re restoring it as a prairie.
并且在修复将其还原成草原
And they’ve been working here for about six years
他们已经这里工作了差不多六年
and we’re surveying the insect population.
现在我们要调查昆虫的数量
Okay. So this is a carrion trap.
这是一个腐肉陷阱
– Ewwww!! Wow. – Oooh, lots of good stuff!
– 恶!哇噢 – 噢 很多好东西呢!

So, there is lots of stuff in here.
嗯 里面有很多东西
So how long was this in the ground for?
这东西埋在地下多久了?
– Four and a half weeks, about a month. – Really.
– 4周半 大概1个月吧 – 是吗
– And that’s a tea strainer…
这是滤茶器吧
– That’s a tea strainer. – that you’re gonna strain through.
– 没错 是滤茶器 – 你用来它过滤
That’s very sophisticated.
很先进啊
Yeah, we are.
是的
So, it’s a carrion trap, so what does that mean?
所以这是个“腐肉陷阱” 什么意思呢?
Okay, so this,
这个呢
had four ounces of chicken liver in it
里面装了4盎司鸡肝
Sounds appetizing.
听着就很有食欲
Hung over the bucket.
挂在这个桶上
And the carrion trap…
然后腐肉陷阱……
they’re compelled by the rotting meat smell to fall in.
腐肉的气味会诱使它们掉进去
– Hmm – And there’s…

– 嗯 – 还有这些……

What is it…those look like
这是什么 看起来像……
– Those are millipedes, yeah. – a lot of millipedes.
—这些是马陆 —好多马陆

Tons of millipedes.
一大堆马陆
There’s a bunch of millipedes in here,
这里有很多马陆
bunch of grasshoppers.
还有很多蚱蜢
Oh, those are some huge grasshoppers.
哦 这些蚱蜢个头真大
Yeah, this is one of the carrion beetles,
嗯 这是一种食腐甲虫
– Necrophila americana. – Ohhh. Those are kinda cool looking.
– 北美食屍虫 – 哇 看起来还蛮酷的
That’s one of the carrion beetles that we find here,
它是我们在这里找到的食腐甲虫之一
and it’s really hard to tell what you’ve got
现在很难判定你抓到了什么品种
until you get back to the museum and put it under the scope.
要等回到博物馆 用显微镜看才知道
Yeah, and identify a lot of the smaller ones.
对 还可以辨认很多更小只的昆虫
Yeah, and then you identify the smaller stuff.
嗯 你还能识别出更小的虫子
Lots of isopods, roly-polies.
很多等足虫 瓢虫之类
Lots of different kinds of millipedes.
很多不同种类的马陆
How many different species of millipedes do you think are out here?
你觉得这儿一共有多少种马陆?
– Out here in this prairie? – Yeah.
– 这片草原吗? – 是的
Between fifteen and twenty.
15到20种吧
– Really? – Mmhmm.
– 真的吗? – 嗯哼
I didn’t know there were that many.
我以前不知道有这么多
There are at least six different orders of millipedes out here:
这里至少有6种不同目的陆目
Polydesmids, Spirobolids, Spirostreptids,
条马陆目 山蛩目 旋马陆目
Julids, Platydesmids, Polyxenidas,
姬马陆目 扁带马陆目 毛马陆目
and possibly Polyzoniidas.
还可能有 多板马陆目
So what does that mean?
所以这代表什么呢?
Do they have like different numbers of legs
它们脚不一样多?
or different numbers of body segments? Or…
体节不一样多?还是……
They have different numbers of legs, different numbers of body segments?
他们脚和体节数量都不一样
Uh, their reproductive organs are in different places on the body.
呃 生殖器官也在身体的不同位置
Oh, they’re not just like, where you would assume like the genitals to be?
哦 难道它们的生殖器不是长在该在的地方吗?
No, some of them, the male genitals are on the second segment,
对 有些虫子的雄性生殖器在第二体节
some of them are on the seventh, some of them are on the eighth.
有些在第七节 有些在第八节
So the second segment, like, on the neck.
所谓的第二体节就在脖子上
Just right behind the neck.
对 就在脖子后面
– So you have gonads like, on your head. – Yeah, mhmm.
– 所以 性腺在头上吗? – 嗯……对
– That’s pretty crazy. – They call them gonopods in millipedes.
– 这太离谱了 – 这在马陆身上叫做生殖肢
– So they’re right behind, and they’re on the underside, on the belly. – Okay, yeah.
– 所以生殖器就在后面 在腹侧 – 嗯 这样啊
Right behind the head,
就在头节后面
or a few segments further down,
或者往下几节
– or a few segments further down. – Okay.
– 或者再往下几节 – 哦
And the females all have different types of genitalia as well.
雌性也有很多不同的生殖器
Well, you gotta correspond to the having gonads on your neck.
总得配合那些生殖器长脖子上的嘛
Yeah.
可不是嘛
And then you just put the bucket back in the ground,
然后就把这个小桶放回到土里
and this is just propylene glycol.
这个是丙二醇
So you don’t want to use alcohol out here because it’ll evaporate.
不能用乙醇对吧 因为很快就挥发了
It’ll evaporate away.
对 会挥发
And so you use that…
所以你就用这个……
So use propylene glycol, which is not toxic to mammals.
所以就用对哺乳动物无害的丙二醇
So if a raccoon gets in, and drinks the fluid, it won’t hurt him.
所以如果浣熊进来把这个喝了 也不会有事
This is 50% propylene glycol, 50% water,
这是50%丙二醇 50%水
and a couple of ounces of liquid dishsoap.
再加上一点洗洁精
– And the dish soap breaks the surface tension. – Okay.
– 洗洁精可以降低表面张力 – 这样啊
– So when the insects fall in, they sink. – Yeah, instead of…
– 所以如果虫子掉进来 就会沉下去 – 对 而不是……
They don’t just float,
它们不会浮在水面
because if they floated,
因为 如果它们浮起来
in a couple hours the surface would be covered with insects.
几小时后整个水面都会盖满虫子
Other ones would land and just fly away.
后面来的就会踩在上面 然后飞走了
Oh, I see.
哦 懂了
So they fall in, they sink, and they just keep falling in and sinking.
而像这样的话 它们就能不断掉进来沉下去了
Now here’s the part that’s so much fun for you.
现在这个部分对你来说就好玩得多了
– This is chicken liver, – That’s…
– 这个鸡肝 – 那个……
– wrapped in gauze, tied up. – Ooh.
– 用纱布包起来再绑好 – 哇
How long has this chicken liver been sitting out?
这鸡肝放了多久了?
About two and a half days at room temperature.
在室温下放两天半了
So it’s starting to smell pretty good.
所以现在闻起来很酸爽
– Oh, mmm. It’s nice and fragrant, yeah. – Isn’t that appetizing?
– 噢 嗯…… 很“香” – 是不是看着就很有胃口?
So then you just hang that over the bucket,
然后就把它挂在桶上
and the smell of the rotting chicken liver attracts all those carrion eating beetles.
腐烂鸡肝的臭味会吸引各种食腐甲虫
They fall in the bucket and sink down to the bottom.
它们会掉进桶里 沉到水底
So why are you specifically trying to get carrion beetles?
那么你为什么专抓食腐的甲虫呢?
A lot of other things will fall in as well.
许多其他东西也会掉进去
Some of the beetles that are attracted to carrion are considered habitat indicators.
一些喜欢食腐的甲虫可以当做栖所指示
One of the carrion beetles called Nicrophorus marginatus.
有一种叫做边缘葬甲的腐尸甲虫
That’s only found in fairly high quality prairies.
只有生态环境非常好的草原才有
The last set of traps we set had Nicropherus marginatus in it.
在上一排陷阱里 我们就抓到一些边缘葬甲
There also had a scarab called Phanaeus vindex which is a dung roller
还有一种叫做彩虹圣甲虫的屎壳郎
that is also only found in high quality prairies.
同样只见于环境非常好的草原
So six years ago there were soybeans here,
所以六年前这里是豆田
and now you’ve got a nice, healthy prairie.
现在成了漂亮 健康的草原
Yeah.
是的
So when you get a healthy prairie
所以当你有了个健康的草原
and you have all these good bugs as good indicators of how healthy the prairie is,
还有这些指示牧场健康程度的好虫子
That’s going to obviously attract birds and mammals,
一定会吸引很多鸟类 哺乳类
– and all kinds of things to come back to this area… – If you’ve got…

– 还有各种其他生物回到这一片 – 如果你有……
that maybe hadn’t been here for years.
而它们可能在这里已经绝迹多年了
If you’ve got good insects,
如果有了好的昆虫
you get more reptiles and amphibians,
就会有更多爬虫类跟两栖类
you get more birds.
然后就会有更多鸟类
If you get more birds, more reptiles and amphibians,
有了更多鸟类和爬虫类和两栖类
you get more mammals.
就会有更多哺乳动物
And the populations and the community
然后它们的种群和群落
just keeps building and building over the years.
就会逐年壮大
This is exciting!
真令人兴奋!
– So now we’ve got three or four pitfall traps, – Okay.
– 我们现在已经弄好三四个陷阱了 – 好的
which are the same thing, but without the bait.
跟刚才的诱饵陷阱一样 只不过没有诱饵了
Occasionally a mouse or something will fall in and it can’t get out,
偶尔有老鼠之类的 会掉进去爬不出来
– but then we take it to the mammal division at the museum. – Oh, yeah.
– 我们就把它带到博物馆的哺乳动物分部 – 嗯
And it goes into their collections,
然后工作人员把它收集起来
– and then they have records of them being here. – Yeah.
– 这样就有它们在这里的记录了 – 嗯
– So nothing ever goes to waste. – Yeah.
– 所以什么都不会浪费 – 是的
– And there’s some beetles, too. – Wow, some grasshoppers.
– 这里也有甲虫 – 哇 还有些蚱蜢
– See the carabid beetles? – Yeah.
– 看到步行虫了没? – 看到了
– That’s a ground beetle, a carabid beetle. – There’s some spiders in there.
– 那是一种土鳖虫 一种步甲虫 – 里面还有些蜘蛛
Yeah, there’s spiders.
嗯 有蜘蛛
And you don’t usually find very many spiders in carrion traps,
不过在腐肉陷阱里面一般找不到蜘蛛的
because most spiders are actually repulsed by the smell of carrion.
因为大多数蜘蛛实际上讨厌腐肉的味道
Really?
真的吗?
So spiders walk up close to a carrion trap,
如果蜘蛛爬到腐肉陷阱旁
and then veer away.
它会掉头就跑
Oh, that’s interesting.
哦 有意思
I would have thought that everything would just, you know,
我还以为所有虫子都会
swarm to the stink smell.
无脑地往这臭味里面钻呢
– There are a lot of beetles that are repulsed by the smell of carrion also. – Right. Oh, okay.
– 很多甲虫也很排斥腐肉的 – 噢 好吧
So they fall into these kinds of traps.
所以它们就掉到这种陷阱里
So you gotta make sure you have diverse, different ways of collecting everything.
所以你得要用不一样的方法来收集样本
The more ways you have of collecting,
收集的方法越多
the more different types of insects you’re going to find.
找到的虫子类型就越多元
– So far we’ve collected 800 spiders and insects at this point, – Wow.
– 目前我们已经收集了800种蜘蛛和其他昆虫 – 哇哦
in just over the same period of four weeks.
这些都是在短短4周内收集到的
– 800 different species in four weeks. – In four weeks, yes.
– 4周就有800种不同物种? – 是的
We could easily find 1200-1500 over a full summer.
整个夏天我们可以很轻松收集到1200到1500种
So we should get a whole lot more than we have so far.
所以我们的虫子应该会有比现在多得多
That’s exciting!
真令人兴奋啊!
I can see where you’d really get into this.
我能理解你为什么沉迷于此了
This seems relatively low technology.
这个看上去技术性不是很高
It is really very low cost, low technology,
对 这个就是非常低成本 低技术
and basically, anybody can do it.
基本上任何人都能做的
You can go to the car part store and get a little bit of propylene glycol,
你可以去汽配店买点丙二醇
– put the holes in the ground, – You just need some dish soap.
– 在地上弄几个坑 – 再来点洗洁精
– some dish soap, some water, – some old railroad spikes.
– 加点洗洁精 加点水 – 一些旧铁路道钉
and, to do the carrion trap, a little bit of chicken liver.
然后 如果要做腐肉陷阱的话 加点鸡肝
You could set a full set of traps for fifteen bucks.
只要15美元就可搞定一整套陷阱了
– And then some alcohol, some rubbing alcohol to put them in. – Yeah.
– 还要一点酒精 把鸡肝浸在外用酒精里 – 嗯
Come on, start.
快点 动起来啊
We’re gonna go back, right in there between those trees and string the line.
我们要回去 在那些树之间系上绳子
It is beautiful back here.
这里真美
Isn’t this a cool place?
很美对吧
Yeah. This is gorgeous.
对 漂亮极了
Have you set up a sheet back here before?
你以前有在这里挂过床单吗?
Yeah, I have, and if the weather’s good, it does pretty well.
有的 而且天气好的时候效果特别好
– And… – If the weather’s too cold, it doesn’t do anything.
– 还有…… – 但天冷的话就基本上没用
Okay. Bring it back around again.
好 再从后面绕过来
You have to have one to hang the sheet from and one to hang the light from.
得要有一根绳子挂床单 另一根挂灯
Oh, that makes sense.
噢 有道理
How long have you been doing this?
你干这个多久了?
How like, how long have you been going out into the field and collecting bugs?
就是在野外抓虫子
17-18 years now.
到现在十七八年了
– I’d collect live things and bring them home and watch them. – And watch them?
– 我会收集活虫子带回家观察它们 – 观察它们?
– I’d watch caterpillars eat, and grow, and spin their cocoons, and… – Yeah.
– 我会观察毛毛虫吃东西 长大 结茧…… – 哦
wait for them to emerge whenever they came out.
等它们破茧而出
You know, there’s an old saying
有句老话说得好
If you love what you do,
如果你喜欢自己的工作
you’ll never work another day in your life.
你就永远不是在工作
Yeah.
说的没错
I get a paycheck every other week,
我每两周拿一次薪酬
but I haven’t worked in 18 years.
但我18年来一直没有工作过
For me it’s great fun, and I get paid for it.
对我而言这是种乐趣 还有钱拿
I get paid for my hobby, what could be better?
我的爱好能赚钱 还有比这更好的事吗?
This will hold it down and keep the sheet from blowing.
这个可以压住床单 不让它被风吹跑
Ohp, there was a spider.
哦 这儿有只蜘蛛
This is a mercury halide light.
这是水银卤化灯
It’s a 250 watt bulb.
里面是个250瓦的灯泡
And that gets hung up here.
把它挂在这里
…It still has brain on it.
还有脑浆在上面

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译制信息
视频概述

收集和观察牧场里的昆虫,走近大自然

听录译者

收集自网络

翻译译者

HiyaTay

审核员

审核员J

视频来源

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=DNphZnLmUDM

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