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探究式学习:从教师引导到学生自驱 – 译学馆
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探究式学习:从教师引导到学生自驱

Inquiry-Based Learning: From Teacher-Guided to Student-Driven

学生:我打开它 里面有一条根……
Student: I opened it up, and there was a root inside.
安妮:对于探究性学习模式 令人惊喜的是我们能走得如此之远
Anne: What’s exciting about the inquiry models that we go far
甚至超过该课程的预期
and above what the curriculum expectations are.
小朋友们投入到他们的学习中 并且能够
Kids are invested in their learning, and they’re able to transfer
把他们在学校中所学的知识转换并运用到现实生活中
and apply what they’re learning in school to the real world.
在拉斯顿小学
school that work Ralston Elementary school
探究式学习就是引导学生成为课堂的主导
inquiry-based learningguiding students to drive lessons
琳赛:探究式学习使学生成为思考者
Lindsay: Inquiry based learning allows the students to be the thinkers.
老师以一种“以终为始”的思想开展他们的课堂教学
Teachers begin their lesson with an idea of where they want to end in mind,
但关键点在于真正让学生们有机会去主导课堂
but really give the students the opportunity to drive it to that point.
琳赛:所以你们的工作是按照你们设定的程序进行下去
Lindsay: So your job, keep working through your procedure,
当你们确定全部事项之后 我会过来和你们一起检查
when you all agree, I’ll come back and check in with you.
道恩:我们指导了这次的探究
Dawn: We have guided inquiry,
老师也通过这次的课程指导了学生
where teachers are guiding students through the curriculum.
D.J.:好的 找出5毫升
D.J.: Okay, find that five milliliters.
道恩:然后转换方式让学生主导探究
Dawn: And then making a shift into student driven inquiry,
学生以此作为他们的先验知识
where students use that as prior knowledge
并围绕着先验知识建立起自己的探究
and build their own inquiries around that.
我们希望他们能以此去为更高层次的探究打下基础
We want them to be building the foundation for higher level inquiry,
让他们在幼儿园的时候就有一个正确的开端
starting right when we have them in kindergarten.
并且一旦有人发现什么
Lindsay: And once someone finds something,
确保你告诉了其余的古生物学家
make sure that you tell the rest of the paleontologists.
我们发现了头盖骨
Student: We found the skull
琳赛:哦 你发现了头盖骨吗
Lindsay: [gasps] Oh, you found the skull?
安妮:这位老师所建立的指导性探究模型是基于
Anne: The teacher’s developing the guided inquiry model based
课程内容的 但是之后学生慢慢了解了这个模式
on the curriculum, but then the students are shaping
他们就知道要怎么继续往前走
where do they want to go with it.
琳赛:我们先快速浏览一下我们的实验表格 然后开始
Lindsay: We’re going to go through our lab sheet quickly, and then we’re going
加入到各自的实验小组中去
to get into our experimental groups.
他们被告知两位科学家的实验室里的东西弄混淆了
They were told that two scientists had a mix-up in their lab.
他们有一些种子 一些卵 而且现在他们不知道哪个是种子 哪个是卵
They had some seeds, they had some eggs, and now they don’t know which are which.
学生们有机会
The students had the opportunity
去决定哪些想法是对我们的实验有帮助的
to decide what they thought would be helpful experiments
然后去找出正确的答案
for us to get to our answer.
并不是一开始就将一连串信息 事实和细节告诉他们
Instead of opening with a bunch of information and facts and details,
而是给他们一个问题 然后使他们成为
the students are given a problem, and then they’re the ones
主导这个实验的人
who get to drive the experiments.
凯蒂:我们正试着观察哪个是卵 哪个是种子
Katie: I’m trying to see which one is eggs, and which one’s seeds.
但看不出来
But we don’t know.
所以我们正试着去找到一些我们能使用的策略
So we’re trying to figure out strategies that we can do.
洛根:我们制定步骤 然后测试和观察会发生什么
Logan: We make our steps and then we test and see what happens.
哈德利:我们想种植他们
Hadley: And we think planting them,
因为我们觉得种子会生长 而卵不会
and we think the seeds will grow, and eggs won’t.
学生:我认为它们会长得更大
Student: I think they’ll get bigger.
学生:是的 所以一旦它们长得更大的话 他们就可能爆裂开
Student: Yeah, so once they get bigger, it would like crack open.
道恩:教师正在以问题引导学生
Dawn: Teachers are guiding with questions
并且真的让学生去思考 去学会如何进行自我质疑
and to really get students thinking, and learning how to question themselves.
琳赛:怎样才有可能帮我们找出
Lindsay: How might that help us figure
其中哪些是卵 哪些是种子?
out which are the eggs and which are the seeds?
哪个是漂浮的 哪个是下沉的呢?
Floating or sinking?
学生:可能卵比种子要重一些
Student: It might be that the eggs are heavier than the seeds.
学生:我喜欢用这种方式去探究 因为
Student: I like doing it this way, because you get
动手做很重要 而不是仅仅看着它而已
to touch what you’re actually doing, instead of just looking at it.
道恩:我们从科学课开始我们的探究型学习模式
Dawn: Well, we started with the inquiry model in science,
当我们看到学生兴奋地想要找到更深层次问题的答案时
and as we started to see students getting excited about finding answers
我们看到了这种学习模式的力量以及
to deeper level questions, we saw the power and how
它是可以在学校广泛实施的
that could be implemented throughout the school day.
D.J:如果你抓到了一管颜料 这个和制作颜料背后的原理
D.J.: If you grab a tube of paint, there’s no real connection
是没有任何的关系的
to the science behind making that paint.
我想让他们知道艺术无处不在
I want them to see that art is everywhere.
科学无处不在 数学无处不在
Science is everywhere, math is everywhere.
D.J:嗨 我们今天将要用家居用品制作颜料
D.J.: Hey, we are making paint out of household items today.
学生:我们在美术教室里制作颜料 跟着步骤单上的每一个步骤
Student: We started in the art room, following every step of the recipe.
安妮:孩子们需要背景知识
Anne: Kids need background knowledge,
以及了解这些东西的概念
and some conceptual understanding of things.
D.J:我们需要多少盐
D.J.: How much salt do we need?
学生:四分之一杯
Student: A quarter cup.
D.J:四分之一杯
D.J.: A quarter cup.
那么换成汤匙是多少呢
So how many tablespoons is that?
学生:八勺 四勺
Students: Eight– four!
D.J:是四勺
D.J.: Four!
安妮:下一步是 我现在想知道的是什么
Anne: The next step is, What do I want to wonder about now?
我要怎样去调节它
How do I want to adjust this?
D.J.:你提出的问题必须得有引导作用
D.J.: You have to form your questions so that you’re not taking
不是单纯看着他们去创造 而是去促进他们进一步思考
over their creative process, but helping that creative process.
作为一位艺术家 你如何做出符合自己需要的颜料?
How can you make this paint fit your needs as an artist?
作为一位科学家 如何去改变或者改进这个颜料让它符合要求
As a scientist, how am going to change or modify this paint so that it works?
所以我希望你们去试验
So I want you to test that.
并且记得归档记录你们所做的
And remember to document what you did.
学生:好
Student: Okay!
肯德尔:我们希望改变步骤
Kendall: We wanted to change the texture,
因为它对我们来说太散了 有很多块
because ours was a bit too lumpy for our liking
所以我们加了很多材料
and we added a lot of ingredients.
道恩:为了让探究式学习变得成功
Dawn: For the inquiry to be successful,
问的问题应该合理
the question has to be appropriate.
所以我们必须教学生什么样的问题是有效的
And so we really had to teach students what questions would work,
如何解决那些问题
how to model them.
帕瓦尔:我的问题是如何把这个颜料变稀一点
Paval: My question that I had is how could I get this to be a thinner paint
这样我就能有一条直线 它就不会洒的到处都是
so I can have like one straight line, so it doesn’t splatter everywhere.
安妮:这种学习方式中令人激动的一部分是
Anne: The exciting piece of learning this way is
我们摸不清楚结果将会是什么
that we don’t always know what the outcome will be.
让你的学生自己探索并从中学习
It’s a lot of risk involved in allowing your students to kind
这有很大的风险性
of just do some discovery learning on their own.
帕瓦尔:我了解到如果你正在制作颜料 你可以用一种液体物质
Paval: I learned that if you’re making paint, you use a liquid substance
去稀释它 但是如果你混入了太多
to make it thinner, but if you mix too many
错误的东西 它可能会爆炸
of the wrong things, it might just blow up.
凯蒂:我觉得这相当棒
Katie: I think this is pretty good!
安妮:我们想让孩子们成为批判思维者 成为问题解决者
Anne: We want kids to be critical thinkers, to be problem solvers.
当我们打开那扇探索之门 孩子们将慢慢开始
Kids are getting to dig deep into the cause and effect relationships
深入挖掘所有领域中的因果关系
that occur in every field when we open that up,
这正好使他们爱上学习
it just empowers them to love learning.
肯德尔:我们真的没有限制
Kendall: We really don’t have a limit.
我们要自己动手动脑
We get to learn how to do this stuff with our own ideas.
这花了很多时间 但我们成功了
It took a lot of time, but we did it.
学生们:耶!
Students: Yay!

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视频概述

探究式学习能够让学生更好的去融入到过程中,更好的去参与,提高了学生的兴趣以及活动效果

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沙滩上的花已盛开

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视频来源

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=mAYh4nWUkU0

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