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Increase Your Brain's Will Power: Achieve Goals, Stay Focused, Resist Temptation | David Eagleman

三千多年前 尤利西斯在特洛伊战争取胜后 带领勇士们
Go back 3,000 years to Ulysses, who fought in the Trojan War and was coming home to his
乘船回家乡伊萨卡岛途中 他突然想到他会邂逅一段奇妙旅程
island of Ithaca on his ships with his men, and he realized that he had this amazing opportunity,
which is he was going to pass the Island of the Sirens.
他也知道 塞壬歌声美妙而充满诱惑 最正气凛然的听众也会被引诱
And he knew that the sirens sang so beautifully and were so seductive that mortal men would
从而触礁沉船 葬身大海 无一例外
crash their ships into the rocks, and they’d all die every time.
如果你要听塞壬唱歌 你会付出生命的代价
If you heard the song of the sirens you were going to die.
但他想要听塞壬唱歌 那么他怎么做的呢
He wanted to hear the song of the sirens, so what did he do?
聪明的尤利西斯 与未来的自己签了一个契约
The Ulysses of present sound mind made a contract with the future Ulysses.
他说: 我知道那个家伙(将来的他)听到歌声后会行为不端
He said, “I know that guy is going to behave badly when he hears the siren’s song.”
So what did he do?
他把自己绑到桅杆上 同时他给士兵耳朵里塞满了蜂蜡
He lashed himself to the mast, exactly, and he filled his men’s ears with beeswax, and
然后他说: 无论我一会儿做什么 你们继续摇桨
he said, “No matter what I do, keep on rowing.”
就什么都不管 一直向前走
Just ignore everything, keep on going.
就是用这种方法 他听到了塞壬的歌声 也不至于丧命
And that way he got to hear the siren’s song but he didn’t crash in the rocks because
he was lashed to the mast.
这就是著名的尤利西斯契约 即让现在的自己
And so this is what is known as a “Ulysses contract”, which is your present self making
a contract with your future self.
通过限制将来的自己的行为 从而使将来的自己
Penning in, constraining the behavior of your future self so that it has to do the right
thing given your long-term thinking that you’re doing now.
所以 当涉及到那些诱惑 像曲奇饼时 尤利西斯契约更有效
And so when it comes to something like the cookies, the Ulysses contract, it’s more
than “I’m going to eat it or not eat it.”
他的原理类似于: 好的 那么如果我想吃曲奇 我将向另一半保证
It can be something like, “Okay, look, if I eat cookies, I’m going to promise my spouse
that I’ll go to the gym tonight.”
That’s the kind of way that we can bring these sorts of things into our own life.
And so I’ll give you several examples.
现在我想说 假设我们预想到一个
I want to say is so what we’ve seen so far is that there’s this great seduction in
the now.
And so if we want to do something where we actually are navigating our future selves
in a better way we have to establish these kinds of contracts with ourselves.
This is one of the most important sort of life lessons that I’ve got.
I mean take something like New Year’s resolutions.
每个人在新年 都会定很多愿望 也相信自己可以坚持下去
Everybody has really good New Year’s resolutions and believes they’re going to do it.
但是一月底 几乎所有人都放弃了
And by the end of January for almost everybody these things have fallen away.
It’s not because you didn’t mean it in January.
而是你没有真正把他们规划到生活中 而这正是
It’s because you didn’t set up the structures in your life, the Ulysses contracts to make
sure that that went through.
单纯承诺 下决心 保持美好意愿是不够的
It’s not enough to make a promise and a resolution with good intention.
你需要理解 这些愿望到底意味着什么 以及你能做什么
You need to understand what’s actually happening so that you can do something about it.
我想说的正是制定切之可行的计划 使我们的愿望
So what I want to do is suggest actionable steps by which we can actually keep our resolutions
to ourselves a little bit longer.
So the first one is building fences around yourself by minimizing temptation.
比如 在匿名戒酒所 他们首先会告诉你
So, for example, in Alcoholics Anonymous the very first thing they tell you is you’ve
got to clear all the alcohol out of your house.
因为(如果不清空) 你可能在开心的周五晚喝酒庆祝 或在孤独的周日
It’s because on a festive Friday night or a lonely Sunday night you’re going to go
and drink.
即使你自己想: 不 我不再喝了
Even if you think, “No, I’m done.
我不再喝酒了 我只是把这些酒留着
I’m not going to drink but I’m going to keep those in there.”
烟民戒烟过程 被告知的第一件事也是不要和其他
With smokers the first thing they’re told in these rehab programs is: don’t hang out
with other smokers.
With drug addicts who are trying to quit the first thing they’re told in drug rehab programs
is: make sure you never carry more than 20 bucks of cash with you.
因为你一旦有了钱 你就会弃决心不顾 把钱交给那些毒贩
Because if you have the cash, no matter what your resolution is, you meet somebody in the
换得一时过瘾 并自我安慰: 反正我也正好有钱
alley who offers you drugs and you feel like, “Oh yeah, I’ve got this money anyway,”
and so you do it.
所以归根结底 把诱惑变得不再吸引人
So the issue is not-tempting temptation.
我最近在一个大学演讲 结束后遇见一群孩子
I was recently on a college campus giving a talk and I met these kids afterwards who
他们为了在考试周好好学习 就互相交换脸书密码
during finals week what they do is they swap Facebook passwords with each other and they
然后改变这些密码 从而使原主人不能登录
change those passwords so they can’t log into Facebook when they’re supposed to be
等期末考试后 他们再把脸书密码
And then at the end of finals when it’s all over they give each other’s passwords
这种做法很聪明 这也是一个很完美的尤利西斯契约例子
It was very clever and that’s a beautiful sort of Ulysses contract where a week before
期末考试前一周 你知道你将可能面对的诱惑
finals you’re knowing about the temptations that you’re going to give into and you’re
doing something to take care of those.
至今为止 人们关于棉花糖实验已经研究了很多
By now a lot has been said about the marshmallow test.
观众朋友们可能已经听说过了 在这个实验中 孩子们得知
You guys probably know about this where children are asked you can eat this one marshmallow
现在吃只能得到一个棉花糖 但是等实验者回来 他们可以得到两个
now or if you wait until I come back you can get two marshmallows.
人们讨论孩子们做出的选择 以及他们
People talk about this in terms of the resolution that little kids have and how good they are
拒绝诱惑的能力 但是有一个我们经常忽略的事实
at resisting temptation and stuff but there’s something that’s often overlooked here which
孩子们最常用的一个拒绝诱惑的策略 就是简单地遮住双眼
is that one of the most common strategies that kids use was simply covering their eyes.
即拿手捂住眼镜 这样就不用看着棉花糖
Just clapping their hands over their eyes so they’re not looking at the marshmallow.
And it turns out that’s a very effective strategy.
所以当我们考虑最小化诱惑时 无论诱惑是什么
And so when we think about minimizing temptations whatever your temptations are in life just
think about the ways that you can actually contractually minimize that temptation so
it’s not there.
Not a fake thing or anything.
哦就是这样 如果把诱惑藏起来 我一定不碰它 实际上
Oh yeah, if it’s in the back of the cabinet I won’t do it but like actually get rid
of the temptation.