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在挪威收入是公开的 – 译学馆
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在挪威收入是公开的

In Norway, Everyone Can Know How Much You Earn

在英国 对巴拿马文件泄漏的反应有点怪
In Britain, the reaction to the Panama Papers leak has been a bit weird.
政治家被泄露了他们捐税收入的总合
Politicians have been releasing summaries of their tax returns,
所有人证明他们没有任何海外账户的努力都宣告失败
all falling over each other to try and prove that they haven’t got any offshore accounts
或者激烈争论他们不需证明
or arguing strongly that they shouldn’t have to prove
他们没有任何海外账户
that they don’t have any offshore accounts.
他们中的一个说需要政治家公布捐税收入是
One of them said that requiring politicians to have public tax returns
“对斯塔西和克格勃的回忆”
was “reminiscent of the Stasi or the KGB”.
欢迎来到挪威 我后面的是奥斯陆税务所
Welcome to Norway. Behind me is the Oslo tax office.
而如果你想知道这里的政治家挣了多少 你可以直接问他们
And if you want to know what a politician earns here, you can just ask them.
虽然不仅仅是政治家
It’s not just politicians, though.
是每个人 在挪威 瑞典和芬兰 捐税收入每年公布
It’s everyone. Tax returns in Norway, Sweden and Finland have been public for years:
这些国家的不同处是他们提供细节的不同
the countries differ on how much detail they provide,
而不管你有没有一个询问的好理由
and whether you need to have a good reason for asking —
但基本上你的收入总数在这里是众所周知的
but fundamentally the amount you earn is public knowledge here.
现在 在这个地方 我们可以做新闻报道
Now, at this point, we could do the news report thing,
切到对马路上挪威人的调查
and cut to interviews with Norwegian people on the street,
询问他们对这个感觉如何
asking how they feel about this.
或者我们可以探求科学
Or we could science it,
阅读由经济学家Ricardo Perez-Truglia微软调查的论文
and look at a paper by economist Ricardo Perez-Truglia of Microsoft Research.
那篇论文包括了两件事:第一 挪威监管调查
That paper combines two things: first, the Norwegian Monitor Survey,
每两年调查了一个有代表性的挪威人样品
which, every two years, surveys a representative sample of Norwegians
包括幸福和生活满意度的问题
and includes questions about happiness and life satisfaction.
而第二 当需要找到某些人的纳税细节时 从
And second, when finding out someone else’s tax details went from
“你必须到这里 读完整本书”
“you have to go here and look through a book,
“而且你一年只有3个星期的时间做这件事儿”
“and you’ve only got three weeks in the year to do it”
到“一家报社已经在网上公布了所有事情 而这里是搜索框”
to “a newspaper has published everything online and there’s a search box”.
那篇论文包括了收入透明
The paper concludes that wage transparency,
知道你是否和邻居 或Johansen们
that knowing whether you’re keeping up with the Joneses,
步调一致
or the Johansens,
总的来说不能让大众更开心
doesn’t make the populace happier overall.
相反它加剧了幸福的差距
Instead, it increases the happiness gap:
明确知道你比你的邻居挣得更多
knowing for certain you’re being paid more than your neighbours
更可能让你对你的生活感到满意
makes you more likely to be satisfied with your life.
明确知道你没有做到? 那让你很受伤
Knowing for certain that you’re not doing as well? That hurts.
顺便说一句 在挪威 你也可以在网上查询人们的捐税收入
You can still look up people’s tax returns online in Norway, by the way.
但最近 你必须以一个纳税人的身份登录
But lately, you have to log in as a taxpayer yourself,
每个人都可以看到谁在查询他们的记录
and everyone can see the records of who’s been searching for them.
这里是一个完全不同的社交游戏
That’s a whole different social game right there.
但收入透明有另一个好论据
But there is another good argument for wage transparency:
它创造了一个更加平等的世界
that it makes for a fairer world.
尽管那至今没有很有力的数据 我找不到
There’s no strong data on that yet, not that I can find,
那估量起来极其困难
and it’d be extremely difficult to measure.
但有些好的轶事作证据
But there’s some good anecdotal evidence,
尤其是谷歌的一个工程师创造了一个电子数据表
particularly from an engineer at Google who created a spreadsheet
那里他们的同事可以自愿分享他们的薪水
where their colleagues could voluntarily share their salaries.
关于它的故事 和管理层对它有什么反应 很值得一读
The story around it, and how management reacted to that, is well worth a read.
也有证据表明
And there’s also evidence that,
尽管政客可能不喜欢他
although politicians might not like it,
公开披露捐税收入的确减少了逃税
public disclosure of tax returns does reduce tax evasion.
所以这意味着我将要分享我的捐税收入
So does this mean I’m about to share my tax return,
并且向世界宣布我去年赚了多少了吗
and report to the world how much I made last year?
不 因为我是个英国人
No. Because I’m British,
因为我们不谈论钱
because we don’t talk about money,
你可能会发现什么你不想知道的事……
you might find out something you don’t want to know…
或者你可能伤害到某些人
or you might hurt someone else.
所以我对收入透明的反应和许多人一样
So my reaction to wage transparency is the same as a lot of people’s:
你先
you first.
不行 这不清真
[Translating these subtitles? Add your name here!]

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