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冲动购买:为什么你会买不需要的东西 – 译学馆
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冲动购买:为什么你会买不需要的东西

Impulse Buying: Why You Buy Stuff You Don't Need

[片头♪]
[INTRO ♪]
你可能注意到了很多超市
You’ve probably noticed that in a lot ofstores,
在你付款离开之前
they make you run through a gauntlet of candy bars,
会让你经过放满的
nail clippers, and phone chargers before you can pay
糖果 指甲钳和手机充电器的夹道
and make your escape into the outside world.
你可能会好奇谁会买这些东西
Maybe you wonder who buys all that stuff.
或者可能你已经拆开了
Or maybe you’re already unwrapping a candybar
本来并不打算买的糖果包装
you had not planned to buy.
这些小格子是
Those bins are just one
零售商用来诱惑你冲动购物的手段
of the tricks retailers use to get you to impulse buy,
冲动购物是指购买并不打算购买的商品
where you purchase something without planningfor it in advance.
这意味着你花费的金钱要比
That means you are spending more money
原本的预算要多
than you were originally going to,
那么 你现在就明白了为何
so you can see why stores would try
超市要尽力诱惑你了
so hard to get you to do it.
但这种手段是否有效取决于你的性格
But whether their tricks work depends a loton your personality,
以及大脑对感知收益与损失的反应
and how your brain reacts to perceived gainsand losses.
冲动消费者一般来说具有冲动性
Impulse buyers tend to be impulsive in general,
这不足为奇
which isn ’ t too surprising.
2016年对近1500名参与者的调查显示
In a 2016 survey of nearly 1500 people,
那些说自己很可能
those that said they were likely
冲动地花钱购买假设暴利商品的人
to spend a hypothetical windfall impulsively
也更可能在其他方面冲动消费
also reported higher levels of other impulsivebehavior,
比如酗酒和不安全性行为
like binge drinking and unprotected sex.
很多心理学家认为这些选择
And a lot of psychologists think these choices
都归结于相同的原因:大脑不同部分的斗争
come down to the same thing: a battle between parts of your brain.
有个部分叫伏核
One part, called the nucleus accumbens,
它的激活程度与你对得到喜欢的物品的
activates in proportion to how excited you’llbe
兴奋度成正比
to have that new thing you want.
该区域也会激活被我们称为
It’s the same region that activates forwhat are known as
主要奖励驱动的事物-比如食物和性
primary reward drives—things like food andsex.
大脑的另一部分是脑岛
Another part of the brain, the insula,
脑岛对另一件东西反应很大:价格
has a big reaction to something else: theprice.
价格越高 脑岛越活跃
The bigger the price, the more the insulaactivates.
心理学家把这种反应叫作“支付痛感”
Psychologists call this reaction the “painof paying”
因为在我们在预测物理伤痛以及
because the insula also activates when
接触负面事物如难闻的气味时
we expect to be hurt physically,
脑岛也会被激活
and when we’re exposed to negative thingslike horrible smells. Meanwhile,
同时 第三个部份
a third region,
前额内侧皮质也会
the mesial prefrontal cortex, also plays a role— it,
对价格作出反应
too, reacts to the price,
当你觉得交易合理时这个部份就会被激活
activating whenyou think you’ve gotten a good deal.
通过比较这三个区域的激活情况
Researchers are able to do a pretty good job
研究人员可以很好地预测一个人是否会进行购买行为
predicting whether someone will make a purchase by comparing activation in these three regions.
但不是每个人的大脑
But not everyone ’ s brain
对同一笔交易的反应都相同
reacts the same way to the same deal,
这让心理学家认为
which has led some psychologists to think that
我们都处于“支付痛感”的范围中——
we all fall on a spectrum of”pain of paying”— basically,
基本上就是我们会因花费多少钱烦恼
how much spending money bothersus.
范围的一端是挥霍无度的人
On one end are the spendthrifts,
这种人一般不会有痛感
who just don ’ t really feel that pain.
若得到了想要的物品 不会为花费过多金钱作太多考虑
They think nothing of spending some extra money if they’ve got it.
那就是商品存在的原因 是吗?
That’s what it’s there for, right?
范围的另一端是吝啬鬼
On the other end are the tightwads,
即使是在购买必需品时
who will wait until the last minute to pull out their wallets,
这些人都会等到最后一刻掏出钱包——
even for things they definitely need—
对于他们来说 支付痛感更像是花钱的挣扎
for them, the pain of paying is more like the agony of paying.
我个人比较了解这一点
And I know this personally.
我就会流汗 发热
I sweat, I get hot,
腋窝会露出来
I get—my armpits go. It’s,
全身处于最不舒服的状态
like, the least comfortable I everam.
挥霍无度的人是天然的冲动购买者
Spendthrifts are naturally impulsive buyers,
并不一定因为他们有更多的钱去消费
and not necessarily because they have moremoney to spend.
2007年有一个超过9000人的调查发现
A 2007 survey of over 9000 people found
那些在范围末端的挥霍无度的人背负了更多信用卡贷款
those at the spendthrift end of the spectrum had more credit card debt.
但是尽管吝啬鬼不喜欢消费
But even though tightwads don’t like spendingmoney,
他们更容易被特定手段所迷惑
they’re more vulnerable to certain typesof tricks
这些手段使他们购买本不想买的商品
designed to get them spending money they don’tintend to.
这是因为他们真的感觉到
That’s because they really feel anything
这些可以减轻强烈支付痛感
that reduces their intense pain of paying.
因为挥霍无度的人不会感到痛感
Since spendthrifts aren’t pained anyway,
因此 减轻痛感的策略也不起作用
ploys to reduce pain don’t work as wellon them.
举例来说 在一项2007年的研究中
For example, in one 2007 study,
研究人员询问了538名大学生
researchers asked 538 college students if they were
是否想花5美元小费得到
willing to pay a five dollar fee to
新购买商品次日达的配送服务
get overnight delivery on a new purchase.
在半数人面前 他们把这笔费用叫作“小费5美元”
But for half the people, they called it the”small five dollar fee”
来减轻这些人的支付痛感
to reduce the pain of paying.
挥霍无度的人并不在乎这个词——
That one word didn’t matter to the spendthriftsat all—
不管怎么说 都是这个金额
about the same amount paid the fee eitherway.
但仅仅是把费用描述成“小费”
But just describing the fee as”small”
就会让吝啬鬼对付钱时更舒坦
made the tightwads feel much better aboutpaying the price—
大约三倍的人认为花费5美元
about three times as many thought that itwas worth it
得到次日达服务是值得的
to get the delivery overnighted.
啥?
What?
抱歉 我必须对“DFTBA.com”网站作出改变
Excuse me, I have to go make some changesto DFTBA. com.
其它研究发现 使用信用卡也有类似的效果
Other research has found a similar effect with using credit cards,
信用卡支付不会让
which are thought to reduce the pain
实质性的金钱从你眼前和脑海中消失
of paying by keeping the actual,
从而能减轻支付痛感
physical money out of sight and out of mind.
在一项针对125名学生的购物研究中发现
In a shopping study on 125 students,
用信用卡而不是现金付款
paying by credit card instead of cash
完全不会影响挥霍无度的人的购买行为
didn’t affect the spendthrifts’ buying behaviorsat all,
但吝啬鬼更愿意把金钱花费在
but tightwads were more willing to spend money
他们并不需要的不健康的物品上
on unhealthy stuff they didn’t need.
陈列那些糖块并不真的减少支付痛感
Those candy bar displays don ’ t really reduce the pain of paying in any way,
因此这种让大家花钱的方式
so they ’ re probably not the type
可能不适合吝啬鬼
of trick that will get the tightwads spending more.
但是在挥霍无度的人经过的夹道
But sticking a bunch of tempting chocolate
摆设一堆具有诱惑力的巧克力呢?
in front of the spendthrifts passing through?
这样可能就会多赚一些钱了
That might get some cash.
你的消费习惯可能也被另一个性格特质所影响
Your spending habits may also be influenced by another personality trait—
那就是你属于心理学家所说的“完美者”还是“满足者”?
whether you’re what psychologists call a”maximizer”or a”satisficer.”
对于完美者来说 作出决定从来都不容易
For maximizers, decision making is never easy.
举例来说 如果一个完美者需要新电脑
If a maximizer needs a new computer, for example,
他们可能会打开试算表
they might open up a spreadsheet,
在卖场找到所有电脑 开始列出
and find all the computers on the market, and start listing things
类似价格、运行速度和硬盘容量之类的属性
like price, processorspeed, hard drive capacity.
他们会在不同的YouTube频道
They ’ re gon na watch a bunch
观看大量的YouTube视频
of YouTube videos on a bunch of different YouTube channels.
他们会在作最终决定前
They’ll weigh everything that might be important
衡量每一个可能重要的属性
before making their final choice.
满足者就会说:
A satisficer is the kind of person who says,
“你知道 我只是需要一种可以看YouTube视频的东西”
“y’know, I just need something that I canwatch YouTube videos on,”
他们会立刻买下符合描述的商品
and they get the first thing that fits thatdescription.
换句话说 只要符合要求 他们就会买下来
In other words, they go with the first thing that satisfies their requirements.
满足者倾向于
It shouldn ’ t come as a shock
更冲动地消费已经不奇怪了
that satisficers tend to spend money more impulsively,
因为他们比完美者买东西更快
because they make purchases more quickly thanmaximizers.
但是有趣的是 大量的研究都表示
But the funny thing is, there’s lots of researchthat suggests
完美者对他们购买的商品并不满意
that maximizers aren’t as happy with whatthey buy,
对于购买的商品 他们也更后悔
and they regret their purchases more.
这是因为一旦他们在脑海中过多的考虑
It’s like, once they put so much thought into that mental spreadsheet
所有的选项 就很难不管它们了
of all their options, they have trouble leavingit behind.
因此尽快地作消费决定
So making your spending decisions quickly
可能意味着你花费超过预算
might mean you spend more than you intended,
但这也并没那么糟糕
but it isn’t all bad.
最后 不管你是花钱大方的人或是不舍得花钱的人
In the end, whether you’re a spendthriftor a tightwad,
不管你是完美者或满足者
or a maximizer or a satisficer, there aresome things that
如果你想检验自己的冲动消费 有很多事情可以做
you can do if you want to check your impulsive spending.
如果你过多在乎支付痛感
If the pain of paying matters to you,
你可以试试丢弃信用卡并用现金付款
you can try ditching the credit cards and paying in cash.
大量研究显示使用现金减缓消费速度
Lots of studies show that using cash slowsdown spending
因为这样迫使你真正地看到金钱
because it forces you to literally watch themoney
在你手里然后消失的过程
as it’s in your hand and then not anymore. Or,
如果你看到想要的某件商品
if you see something you think you want,
在真正购买之前考虑等待一下
consider waiting before you actually buy it.
你手里拿着的某件东西
Understanding that having your hands on something
会让大脑里自我感觉良好
sets off that feel-good reward excitementin your brain
了解这一点或许能帮你抵制购买欲望
might help you resist the urge.
然后你一会儿可以检验是否仍然有那种想法
Then you can see if you’re still thinking about it later on.
这就是本期《心理科学秀》
This has been SciShow Psychology.
如果你想学习更多
If you want to learn more
关于公司是如何最大化地给你洗脑的内容
about how companies try to hack your brain to maximize sales,
你可以查阅我们的视频 “广告是如何设计说服你的”
you can check out our video on how ads are designed to persuade you.
[片尾♪]
[OUTRO ♪]

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视频概述

冲动购买的生理机制以及影响冲动购买的因素

听录译者

收集自网络

翻译译者

波妞妞

审核员

审核员 HZ

视频来源

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=DUyyS2rjpJY

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