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免疫系统与HIV之战

Immunology wars: The battle with HIV

When a virus winds up inside the body,
当病毒侵入体内
it’s usually met with a furious onslaught from the immune system.
通常会受到免疫系统的猛烈攻击
White blood cells immediately respond by releasing antiviral proteins,
白细胞会立刻作出反应 释放抗病毒蛋白
attacking infected cells and recruiting backup.
攻击被感染的细胞 同时产生后援白细胞
Usually this is enough,
通常这样做就足够了
but there’s one virus that pushes the immune system beyond its limits –
但有一种病毒会使免疫系统超过能力极限——
HIV.
HIV
HIV infects one of the immune cells
HIV病毒会感染一种
that is central to the body’s response to pathogens – the helper T cell.
人体抵抗病原体最重要的免疫细胞——辅助性T细胞
First, the virus attaches and enters.
首先 病毒附着并侵入辅助T细胞
Once inside, the virus moves towards the nucleus,
一旦侵入 病毒会携酶和遗传物质
along with its enzymes and genetic material.
向细胞核移动
One of these enzymes – reverse transcriptase –
其中一种逆转录酶
converts the viral RNA into a length of DNA,
会将病毒RNA逆转录为一段DNA
which inserts into the cell’s genome,
再插入细胞的基因组中
forcing the cell to spew out HIV proteins and genetic material to make new copies of the virus.
迫使该细胞翻译出HIV蛋白和遗传物质 复制生成新的病毒
These new viruses escape the cell to infect others.
新的病毒逸出后继续感染其它细胞
HIV levels rise rapidly in the body,
体内HIV浓度迅速升高
but the immune system doesn’t go down without a fight.
但免疫系统也并不会不战而屈
Inside infected cells,
在被感染的细胞内
antiviral proteins called restriction factors work to shut down virus production
一部分称为限制因子的抗病毒蛋白 会阻止病毒的产生
whilst others stop the virus from escaping the cell.
同时另一部分限制因子 会阻止病毒逃离被感染细胞
Outside, white blood cells, called B cells, produce neutralising antibodies,
在胞外 一种叫B细胞的白细胞会产生中和抗体
which bind to surface spikes on HIV particles
抗体会附着在病毒表面的抗原上
and stop them entering healthy helper T cells.
以阻止病毒侵入其它健康的助T细胞
The greatest assault comes the killer T cells and natural killer cells
最强的攻击来自T杀伤细胞和自然杀伤细胞
which seek and destroy infected cells directly.
它们会搜索并直接消灭受感染细胞
They release a protein called perforin, which punctures the infected cells,
它们会释放一种叫穿孔素的蛋白质 使被感染细胞产生孔洞
allowing enzymes to be injected, triggering auto-destruction.
这会释放胞内的酶 诱发细胞凋亡
For a while, the defence holds and virus levels drop,
防御会持续一阵 病毒浓度会下降
But HIV begins its counter-attack
而HIV也会开始反击
It disables the cell’s antiviral proteins,
病毒会使细胞产生的抗病毒蛋白失效
allowing new virus particles to leave the cell.
让新病毒颗粒离开被感染细胞
It also constantly mutates inside the cell to evade detection –
HIV会在胞内不断变异 以避免被识别
the immune system can’t fight what it can’t see.
免疫系统无法攻击不能被识别的病毒
Eventually, the immune system wears itself out.
最终筋疲力尽
Killer T cells activated for too long become exhausted and no longer respond to infection.
T杀伤细胞因超时应答而失活 不再对感染产生反应
Also, the body loses the ability to make new helper T cells to replace those killed in the fight
身体也失去了产生新的辅助T细胞的能力 无法及时补充之前凋亡的免疫细胞
and as a result, their numbers plummet.
免疫细胞因此数量骤降
Ultimately, the body becomes immunodeficient, and this condition is known as AIDS.
最终机体产生免疫缺陷 这也就是我们熟知的AIDS
Without treatment, exposure to otherwise harmless microbes can be fatal.
若不治疗 就算被其它无害的微生物感染也会致命
We still have no way of eliminating HIV from the body completely.
我们还缺乏彻底消灭体内HIV的有效手段
There is no cure, and hidden reservoirs of HIV will rebound if treatment stops.
更没有治愈的方法 停止治疗后 隐藏的HIV灶又会反弹
But treatment with antiretroviral drugs can swing the balance,
使用抗逆转录药物治疗能打破这种平衡
Allowing the immune system to recover from battle and live to fight another day.
为免疫系统赢得恢复时间 以便重装再战

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视频概述

AIDS产生的原因

听录译者

收集自网络

翻译译者

Eicmly

审核员

审核员GS

视频来源

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=BADDj82oces

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