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免疫之战:单克隆抗体 – 译学馆
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免疫之战:单克隆抗体

Immunology wars: Monoclonal antibodies

免疫之战单克隆抗体
在治疗癌症这种疾病时
When it comes to treating diseases like cancer,
现代医学有诸多非常有效的武器
modern medicine has an impressive arsenal.
其中最万能的武器之一
And one of its most versatile weapons
是一种叫做“Y型蛋白质”的单克隆抗体
are Y-shaped proteins called monoclonal antibodies.
人类的免疫系统是可以自行制造抗体的
Our immune systems already produce their own antibodies.
人体可以制造多达数十亿种抗体
They come in billions of variations,
每种抗体都对应着一个特定的靶向目标
each matching a specific target,
比如特定的毒素 细菌或病毒
such as a particular toxin, bacteria or virus.
当抗体与目标结合后 会发送出信号
When they bind to their target, they send a signal…
这个细菌就被贴上了“待消灭”的标识
This bacterium is now marked for destruction.
这些人体自身产生的抗体效率很高
These naturally-produced antibodies are pretty effective,
但在20世纪70年代
but in the 1970s,
科学家发现了量产抗体的方法
scientists figured out how to mass produce them.
科学家可以提取针对特定目标的任何抗体
They can take any specifically-targeted antibody
然后大量复制出来
and make huge numbers of identical clones,
这意味着人类可以制造出
which means you can produce monoclonal antibodies,
针对任何疾病的单克隆抗体
for almost any disease you can think of.
目标:疟原虫 身份:寄生虫 罪行:引发疟疾
这就让人联想到了癌症
Which brings us on to cancer…
失去控制的变异细胞会威胁人的生命
Mutated cells that start growing out of control can be deadly.
但人体的免疫系统并非毫无准备
But, the body’s immune system isn’t defenceless.
来认识一下CTL
Meet the CTL.
CTL细胞是一种白血球
It’s a type of white blood cell
它能够检测到被感染或发生变异的细胞
that can detect infected or mutated cells,
一旦它发现异常细胞 就会分泌毒素
and when it finds one, it secretes toxic molecules
让细胞启动自毁程序
that initiate a self-destruct sequence.
但CTL细胞有时也需要放慢速度
But the CTLs do sometimes need to be reined in.
因为如果它们斗志过于高昂
If they get overenthusiastic
就会误伤免疫系统
the immune system can start causing collateral damage
健康的细胞也会受到攻击
– attacking healthy cells.
幸运的是 只要加入活化后的PD1分子
Fortunately, the CTLs can be turned off
就能够关闭CTL
by activating a molecule called PD1.
但是这个“开关”也存在不利之处
The trouble with having an ‘off-switch’
那就是癌症细胞也会利用“开关”
is that cancer cells can exploit it.
很多癌症细胞会用一种叫PD-L1的反受体保护自己
Many cancer cells protect themselves with a counter receptor called PD-L1.
这种时候就需要单克隆抗体出场了
This is where monoclonal antibodies come in.
科学家可以利用两种单克隆抗体中的其中一个
Scientists can use one of two types:
可以与PD-1分子结合的单克隆抗体
one that binds the PD-1 molecule,
或是与PD-L1结合的单克隆抗体
or another that goes for PD-L1.
在单克隆抗体的帮助下
Thanks to the monoclonal antibodies,
所有CTL细胞都被完全激活
all of the CTLs are fully activated
它们可以杀死癌细胞了
and can blast away the cancer.
这仅仅是单克隆抗体的诸多用途之一
This is just one way that monoclonal antibodies can be used.
事实证明 单克隆抗体对各种各样的癌症都有效果
They’ve already proven effective against a whole range
还有更多的单克隆抗体尚在研发中
of cancers and yet more are still being developed.
能够靶向治疗特定疾病的单克隆抗体
With their ability to be targeted at specific diseases,
颠覆了医学界
monoclonal antibodies are turning out to be a game-changer,
成为人类对抗癌症的过程中
and one of our most effective weapons
最有效的武器之一
in the fight against cancer.

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什么是单克隆抗体?它有怎样的用途?了解一下吧!

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视频来源

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=5AXApBbj1ps

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