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如果你使用社交媒体,你需要知道真相!Mark Zuckerberg的见证 – 译学馆
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如果你使用社交媒体,你需要知道真相!Mark Zuckerberg的见证

If You Use Social Media, YOU NEED TO KNOW THE TRUTH! Mark Zuckerberg's Testimony

使用社交媒体的人请注意
If You Use Social Media, Pay Attention To This!
人们不喜欢听到他们正在脸书上浪费生命
People do not like to hear that they’re wasting their lives on Facebook
你知道 人是善变的
You know people aren’t predictable and
所以我们想从心理学角度想出如何操纵你
so we want to psychologically figure out how to manipulate you
联邦贸易委员会已经证实
the Federal Trade Commission has confirmed
随着Cambridge Analytica公司丑闻的发生
It is investigating Facebook’s privacy practices
他们正在调查脸书的隐私业务活动
in the wake of the Cambridge Analytica scandal.
Cambridge Analytica 是一家数据公司
Cambridge Analytica is a data firm
它利用网上信息 瞄准具有政治信息的用户
that uses online information to target users with political messages.
该公司为特朗普的2016年总统竞选运行了数据操作
The company ran data operations for President Trump’s 2016 presidential campaign.
大学教授 Aleksandr Kogan
University professor Aleksandr Kogan
为Cambridge Analytica公司制作了一个名为“thisisyourdititallife的软件
creates an app “Thisisyourdigitallife” for Cambridge Analytica.
下载了该软件的用户授权给它
Users who downloaded the app granted it,
因而Cambridge Analytica 公司得到了用户的信息数据
and therefore Cambridge Analytica, access to their data.
Facebook称 二十七万人下载了这款软件
Facebook says 270,000people downloaded “thisisyourdigitallife”.
但此软件还收集了用户的朋友们的信息
But the app also gathered information on the friends of users,
很可能包括了数千万人的信息
likely tens of million of people.
扎克伯格先生
Mr. Zuckerberg,
你愿意告诉我们大家 你昨晚入住的酒店名字吗?
would you be comfortable sharing with us the name of the hotel you stayed in last night?
哦……
Um…
不愿意
Uh…No
如果你这个星期给任何人发过信息的话
If you’ve messaged anybody this week,
你愿意告诉我们大家 你把信息都发给谁了吗?
would you share with us the names of the people you’ve messaged?
参议员先生 我不愿意 我可能不会选择在公共场合这么做
Senator, no, I would probably not choose to do that publicly here.
我想 这也许就是 所有我们要谈的问题
I think that may be what this is all about
关于你的隐私权
Your right to privacy
你的隐私权限
The limits of your right to privacy
以及在现代美国 以“连接
and how much you give away
全世界人民”的名义
in modern America
泄露了多少个人信息
in the name of quote: “connecting people around the world.”
问题主要有:
Question basically of
Facebook都收集什么信息?
What information Facebook’s collecting?
把收集来的信息发给谁?
who they’re sending it to?
那样做 有没有事先征求我的同意?
and whether they ever asked me in advance my permission to do that?
Facebook用户有这样的期待 合理吧?
Is that a fair thing for a user of Facebook to expect?
我们没有把责任考虑周全
We didn’t take a broad enough view of our responsibility
这是一个很大的错误
and that was a big mistake,
而且这是我的错误 对不起
and it was my mistake, and I’m sorry.
我创立了Facebook
I started Facebook.
是我经营的
I run it.
所以我要为在这里发生的事情负责
and I’m responsible for what happens here.
社交媒体的真相
The Hard Truth About Social Media
如果研究一下构建这些软件的思维流程
If the Thought process that went into building these applications
Facebook作为第一个社交应用程序最清楚这一点
Facebook being the first of them to really understand it
那就是 思维流程全是有关
That thought process was all about
我们如何能让你在应用上 尽可能地
how do we consume as much of your time and
花最多的时间和有意识的注意
and conscious attention as possible?
而那就意味着
And that means that
就好像我们每隔一段时间 得给你打点儿多巴胺
we need to sort of give you a little dopamine hit every once in a while
因为有人评价或赞了一张照片
Because someone liked or commented on a photo
或帖子什么的
or a post or whatever.
会让你贡献更多的内容
and that’s gonna get you to contribute more content
然后还会让你有更多的赞和评论
And that’s gonna get you, you know, more likes and comments,
它很有效 是一个社交的正反馈循环
and it’s a valid, It’s a social validation feedback loop
那就像 我的意思是 它正是那种
that it’s like, I mean, It’s exactly the kind of thing
像我这样的黑客会想出来的
that a hacker like myself would come up with
因为你在利用人类心理的弱点
because you’re exploiting a vulnerability in human psychology,
而且我觉得
and I just, I think that we, you know,
发明者 创造者
the inventors, creators
我也好 马克也好
you know, and it’s me, it’s Mark
还是Instagram的Kevin Dystrom
It’s the, you know, Kevin Systrom at Instagram.
所有这些人都一样
It’s all of these people.
全都清楚地知道是怎么回事 但我们还是这么做了
understood this consciously and we did it anyway!
网络消费商家是在利用心理学谋利
Consumer internet businesses are about exploiting psychology
就是要用到”快速失败”的地方
And that is one where you want to “fail fast”.
因为你知道人们是无法预测的 所以我们想
because you know people aren’t predictable and so we want to
从心理学角度想出如何能尽快操纵你的办法
Psychologically figure out how to manipulate you as fast as possible
然后再给你打一针多巴胺
and then give you back that dopamine hit.
我们在Facebook上做得特别棒
We did that brilliantly at Facebook
Instagram 已经这样做了 WhatsApp 也这样做了
Instagram has done it, Whatsapp has done it.
还有Snapchat和Twitter都这么做了
You know Snapchat has done it, Twitter has done it,
所以有很多非常好的例子 微信也在这样做
so there are great examples, WeChat is doing it
有很多例子都证明了
There are great examples of failing fast is
快速失败 对于利用大众心理谋利来说是正确的途径
the right path to exploiting psychology of mass populations of people.
我想 我们内心早就知道
I think we all knew in the back of our minds
即使我们假装相信这句
Even though we feint this whole line of
“可能不会有任何意外的不良后果”
like there probably aren’t any really bad unintended consequences.
我觉得在我们内心最深处
I think in the back deep deep recesses of our minds
我们隐约地知道
we kind of knew,
不好的事有可能发生
something bad could happen,
但我认为我们界定它的方式并不是这样
but I think the way we defined it was not like this
它现在确实是一个核心问题
It literally is a point now
那就是我们创造了一些工具
where I think we have created tools
而这些工具 正在破坏社会正常工作的结构
that are ripping apart the social fabric of how society works
这就是我们现在所处的位置
That is truly where we are.
你们作为世界未来的领导者
And I would encourage all of you,
我会鼓励你们所有人
as the future leaders of the world,
去真正理解这点的重要性
to really internalize how important this is.
养虎为患
If you feed the beast that beast will destroy you.
如果你抑制住它
if you push back on it,
我们就有机会控制它 驾驭它
we have a chance to control it rein it in and
当人们
It is a point in time
需要努力摆脱这些工具和依赖的东西时
where people need to hard break from some of these tools
这就是关键
and the things that you rely on
我们创造的短期多巴胺驱驶的反馈循环
The short-term dopamine driven feedback loops that we have created
正在毁灭社会的正常运行
are destroying how society works
没有文明话语 没有合作
No civil discourse, no cooperation
错误信息 虚假真相
misinformation, mistruth
这不只是美国的问题
and it’s not an American problem.
这不是关于宣传俄罗斯
This is not about Russian ads.
这是一个全球性的问题
This is a global problem
我喜欢你在”60分钟”节目上做的老虎机的比喻 给我们大家讲讲
Tell us that I love that analogy you made on 60 minutes about the slot machine
– 是的 – 手机真的是老虎机
-Yeah -That the phone is really a slot machine
而且每次人们查看的时候 他们都想—-
and every time people are checking, they want “grr”,
想得到突然被掐了似的那种刺激感
they wanna get some sort of goose.
我的意思是它是嵌入我们大脑中的“可变奖励”
I mean it’s built into our brains of variable scheduled rewards
所以当你拉一下拉杆时 有时你能得到奖励 有时你得不到
so if you pull a lever and sometimes you get a reward, and sometimes you don’t,
有时你可以得到被邀请请参加Bill Maher秀这样的奖励
sometimes you get a reward like you’re invited to the Bill Maher show
你又一拉下拉杆时
And as soon as you pull your lever,
你得到的是你邮箱里收到想扔掉的时事邮件
and you get a newsletter on email you wanna throw away
它让人上瘾
It makes it addictive
所以 有关我们手机的一切不经意地让手机变成了老虎机
and so everything about our phone Accidentally becomes a slot machine
因为 它可能有你爱人给你发的短信
because it could be a text message from someone you love
也可能什么都没有
or it could be nothing
它响得越频繁 我们越受影响 查看得次数就越多
but the more frequently a buzzes, the more it conditions us to check more.
所以很显然 它导致了这种 所有人都体会到的成瘾问题
and so, it’s obviously leading to these kind of addictive problems that everybody feels
在这个社交媒体时代 你会对青年人说些什么呢?
“In this age of social media, what would you say to young people?”
关掉它 这就是我要说的
Turn it off. That’s what I would say
这对现在的年轻人来说很难
it’s hard for young people now
因为他们被勾住了 成瘾了
because they’re hooked, they’re addicted.
如果你认为你没瘾的话 而且我指的是任何人
If you don’t think you’re addictedAnd I’m talking about it anyone
从社会最高层的到最低层如果你不认为你有瘾
from the highest to the lowest, if you don’t think you’re addicted,
那就看看能否做到关机一星期
Then see if you could turn it off for a week.
怎么安静下来了?都不出声了?
It got quiet in here, didn’t it?didn’t it get real quiet?
它是一种工具
It’s a tool
所以我们应该利用它
So we should use it.
上帝赋予了我们自由意志
God has blessed us with freewill.
但现在 自由意志被放大了 自由意志像被打了激素
Now it’s free will magnified, free will on steroids,
你可以自由地选择去任何地方
you’re free to go in any direction you want.
它会允许你的 它并不是敌人
It will allow you. And it’s not the enemy,
它只是衬垫 只是我们自由意志的一种反映
It’s just the mat. it’s just a reflection of our own free will.
我们都希望被别人喜欢
And we all want to be liked.
但现在我们想被1600万人喜欢
But now, we want to be liked by 16 million
那现在我们中的一些人做任何让别人喜欢自己的事了吗
And will now some of us do anything to be liked?
我们曾经为了让别人喜欢可以做任何事
We used to do anything to be liked,
但那只是对在你前面的人
but it was the by the person in front of you.
现在是被1600万你不认识的人喜欢
Now is to be liked by 16 million people that you don’t know
我们必须问问自己:如果信息过多
We have to ask ourselves: What is the long-term
不是短期内的影响 那长期的影响又是什么呢?
if not to the short-term effect of too much information?
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视频概述

社交媒体背后的心理学

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视频来源

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=I0oL4MAOku8

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