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如果在马里亚纳海沟引爆一颗核弹会怎样 – 译学馆
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如果在马里亚纳海沟引爆一颗核弹会怎样

If You Detonated a Nuclear Bomb In The Marianas Trench (Just Fantasy, not science!)

如果在马里亚纳海沟引爆一颗核弹会怎样?
What would happen if a nuke went up in the Mariana Trench?
这个是沙皇邦巴
This is the Tsar Bomba,
该核弹是冷战期间苏联领导人赫鲁晓夫向西方示威的一个武器
the nuke that Soviet leader Nikita Khrushchev promised to show the West during the Cold War.
足足重达58.6兆吨
58.6 megatons of sheer, unadulterated power
其爆炸气浪造成的后续能量能围绕地球三圈
with a subsequent blast wave that circled the globe 3 times.
这里是马里亚纳海沟
And this is the Mariana Trench.
地表最深的裂缝
the deepest crack in the earth’s surface,
这座峡谷差不多有7英里(11千米)深
a canyon almost 7 miles or 11 kilometers deep,
峡谷上方有3英里(5千米)宽
up to 3 miles or 5 kilometers wide,
而且全部被水覆盖
and completely filled with water.
沙皇邦巴是从6.5英里的高空掉落的
The Tsar Bomba was dropped from a height of 6.5 miles,
大概等于10.5千米
that’s about 10.5 kilometers,
几乎等同于马里亚纳海沟的深度
which is almost equal to the depth of the Mariana Trench.
巧合? 我不这么认为
Coincidence? I don’t think so.
所以 如果在马里亚纳海沟引爆一颗核弹
So, what happens if we drop a nuke into the depths of the Mariana Trench
会怎样呢
for a good and proper kaboom?
好吧 假设我们决定引爆马里亚纳海沟
Alright, so we’ve decided to blow up the Mariana Trench.
在回答“之后会发生什么”这个问题之前
Before answering the question what happens,
我们得弄清楚如何将炸弹投掷到7英里(1千米)深的海沟
we have to figure out a method for delivering the bomb to a depth of 7 miles or 11 kilometers.
这一过程不像你想象的那么简单
And it’s not as simple as you might think.
毕竟水的密度是1克/立方厘米
After all, the density of water is 1 g/cm³,
这意味着在1千米的水底 水压将达到110兆帕
which means that at this depth the water pressure will reach 110 MPA,
这是标准大气压的1100倍
which is 1,100 times normal atmospheric pressure.
对我们来说 这意味着拥有一层标准铅外层的核弹
For our purposes this means that a nuclear bomb, with the standard outer layer of lead,
在爆炸之前肯定就被压扁了
will simply get crushed flat without detonating, of course.
结果有趣却暗淡 核弹将变成一个巨大的铀饼
The amusing but lackluster end result would be a giant uranium pancake,
落在马里亚纳海沟底部 直径约130英尺(40米)
130 feet or 40 meters in diameter, ending up at the bottom of the Mariana Trench.
这个饼会连续几个世纪放出辐射
This pancake will emit radiation for centuries,
因为铀元素的半衰期是2000年
as the half-life of uranium is 2,000 years.
在这种情况下 这枚炸弹不会爆炸
But in this scenario, there will be no explosion.
因为电荷不会被压缩至临界值
The charge won’t be compressed to the point of critical mass.
而热核弹的外壳会从中间到尾部脱落
And the thermonuclear shell of the bomb will get torn off halfway to the bottom,
并溶解在水里
and dissolve in water.
所以我们要假设炸弹能像潜艇一样降到海底
So, let’s say the bomb will be lowered down inside a bathyscaphe.
假设该“潜艇”可进入深海 能够抵抗高压
That’s a deep-sea submersible designed to withstand high pressure,
而且可以随心所欲地对其进行远程控制
and optionally be remotely controlled.
既然这样 我们就要说重点了
In this case, we’re gonna get our bang.
引爆核弹的方式不止一种
And there’s actually more than one way for that to happen.
1. 如果炸弹在海洋3至5英里
1. If the bomb is detonated at a depth of between 3 to 5 miles,
也就是5至8千米的深度爆炸
that’s 5 to 8 kilometers,
那么爆炸效果和水下核弹标准测试没有什么大不同
the explosion won’t be that much different from your typical underwater nuclear test.
对 爆炸会引起400英尺(122米)高的海啸
Oh, except for a tsunami 400 feet or 122 meters high,
海啸会席卷整个太平洋表面
that will appear on the surface of the Pacific Ocean,
淹没日本和所有东南亚国家
and completely wash away Japan and all of Southeast Asia.
同时 半个澳大利亚和中国的东部地区会发生巨大洪水
Also, half of Australia and the eastern regions of China will see tremendous flooding.
还有美国的太平洋沿岸 特别是旧金山和洛杉矶一带
And the US Pacific coast, especially San Francisco and Los Angeles,
会被困在高达250英尺(76米)的海浪里
will be besieged with waves up to 250 feet or 76 meters.
地球上的其他角落也不能幸免于难
Other corners of the globe will get their share, too.
尽管相对而言 冲击力会小一些
All be it, somewhat milder relatively speaking.
同时 在几天内
Also, the background radiation in the Pacific
太平洋的背景辐射会轻微上升 之后会回归正常
will rise slightly for a few days before going back to normal.
2. 如果炸弹在5到7英里(8~11千米)
2. If the bomb is detonated at a depth of between 5 to 7 miles,
或者在海洋底部爆炸
or 8 to 11 kilometers, or at the very bottom,
那么我们就不得不考虑到一个事实
then we’ll have to take into account the fact that
即马里亚纳洼地位于两个构造板块的交界处
the Mariana depression is located at the boundary between 2 tectonic plates,
——太平洋板块和菲律宾板块
the Pacific and the Filipino.
如果世界上最有威力的核设备在这里引爆
If the world’s most powerful nuclear device is set off at this spot,
爆炸带来的冲击波会被流体力学加强
the shock wave from the blast reinforced by the hydrostatic effect
所以恰好会在岩石圈的脆弱地点之一
will produce a tremendous downward force
也就是构造板块的交界处
precisely at the location of one of the lithosphere weak spots,
产生巨大的下向力
the junction of tectonic plates.
结果会导致板块以非常快的速度合并或背离
As a result, the plates will start either converging or diverging very quickly,
哪一种情况都会给人类带来麻烦
and either options spells trouble for humankind.
所以如果炸弹在海洋底部附近爆炸
So, if the bomb explodes at or near the bottom,
那么我们是不可能侥幸逃脱波及的
we’re not gonna get away with just a really big splash.
此时地基的能量
The energy you received at the base
会以声速传播到板块构造交界处
will be transfered to the boundaries of the tectonic plates at the speed of sound.
海沟底部的部分能量会反弹
Part of that energy will be reflected back up from the bottom of the trench
并以异常 极端 超级大的海啸形式释放
to be liberated at the surface in the form of a colossal ultra super tsunami.
只有这次
Only this time,
海啸的到来是炸弹威力的冰山一角
the tsunami will be just the tip of the proverbial iceberg.
因为随后我们会看到太平洋火山带发生12级地震
Next, we’ll see massive magnitude 12 earthquakes occured across the entire Ring of Fire,
然后会间接造成前所未见的海啸
which will then give rise to a second installment of mega uber tsunamis, even higher than before.
接下来我们会看到爆炸区释放大量岩浆
Will next be treated to a gargantuan release of magma back at the area of the explosion?
这会引发一连串的火山爆炸
And this will set off a chain of volcanic eruptions to complete the picture,
这次就连高知幸存者和高地居民也不能作壁上观了
lest these survivors and the highlands assume they’ve been given a lucky break.
火山运动将至少持续一个月
This volcanic activity will continue for at least a month.
所以地震不仅会造成无休止的酸雨来袭
So, expect the earth to be assaulted with seemingly endless acid rain,
空中飞扬的灰烬还会影响空中运输 进而影响人道主义的救援使命
while the airborne ash will interfere with air travel needed for humanitarian missions.
此外 灰尘还会阻挡大量太阳光线
In addition to blocking out much of the light from the sun,
对人类来说 这个核冬天充满了异味
to me that smells an awful lot like nuclear winter,
而且肯定会有连续几年的超低温
or at the very least, a couple of very cold years.
而连续的海啸 以及寒冷
Coupled with the tsunamis,
会导致全球范围的大灾难
the cold spell may result in globe-spanning catastrophe,
许多物种包括人类会濒临灭绝
with many species, including humans, ending up on the brink of extinction.
如果沙皇邦巴号在距离马里亚纳海沟底部1.5英里
There’s also the possibility that a Tsar-Bomba-type explosion
也就是2.5千米处爆炸
at a depth of roughly 1.5 miles, or 2.5 kilometers from the bottom of the Mariana Trench
那么冲击波会在地球表面撞出一个洞
could punch a hole in the earth’s crust,
这个洞足以形成岩浆喷泉
sufficient to produce a magma fountain.
然后喷泉会形成一个新的大陆
The fountain would then form a new continent,
还会引起我们先前提到的海啸和环境问题
while also bringing about the same tsunamis and environmental problems previously discussed.
此外 这种巨大的影响会促使地球的公转轨道发生轻微改变
In addition, the tremendous impact could push the planet very slightly out of its current orbit.
后果一是 我们亲爱的地球妈妈就会离太阳更近
This will either bring us closer to the sun, where will thoroughly fry,
通体仿似油炸 变成另一个金星
with dear old earth turning into something like a second Venus.
后果二是 这种影响可能会使地球的公转轨道远离太阳
Or on the contrary, the impact might move our orbit further out,
然后我们的地球就陷入了永恒的冬天
where we would descend into a kind of permanent winter.
最终 地壳断层处可能发生一次剧烈爆炸
Finally, there’s the possibility that’s so powerful an explosion at the location of a tectonic fault
把地球弄得四分五裂
will simply tear the planet itself apart.
在这种情况下 人类的命运就可想而知了
The fate of humankind in that scenario is easy to see.
但幸运的是 以上情况发生的可能性都极低
Fortunately however, the likelihood of any of the above happening is extremely low.
经验表明 人类可不是傻瓜
As experience shows, in the end, humans are no fools.
1963年沙皇邦巴的大气层试验成功后不久
Shortly after the successful atmospheric test of the Tsar Bomba in 1963,
有核国家们就署名莫斯科
the Nuclear Club countries signed in Moscow,
签了一条核武器测试禁令——
a treaty banning nuclear weapons tests in the atmosphere,
禁止在空中 外太空 水下进行核武器测验
in outer space or underwater,
这是一种对未来灾难的未雨绸缪
a safeguard of sorts to prevent future catastrophes.
感谢观看!
Thank you for watching!

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视频概述

当世界最大核弹“沙皇邦巴”遭遇世界最深海沟“马里亚纳海沟”,人类的命运将何去何从呢?

听录译者

红花老七

翻译译者

ABC

审核员

审核员YX

视频来源

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=A7eb1DHZ9GQ

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