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如果真的有超能力:体重 – 译学馆
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如果真的有超能力:体重

If superpowers were real: Body mass - Joy Lin

伟大的教育家
Great educators
和动画师
and animators
合作共创
collaborating to create
某些超级英雄 只要他们愿意
Some superheroes can grow
就可以长到建筑物那么大
to the size of a building at will.
那真是很吓人了
That’s very intimidating!
但是科学家一定会问
But a scientist must ask
长那么大所需要的其他物质从何而来?
where the extra material is coming from.
质量守恒定律证明
The Law of Conservation of Mass implies
质量既不能凭空出现
that mass can neither be created
也不能凭空消失
nor destroyed,
这就意味着 我们的英雄的质量
which means that our hero’s mass
不会随着他体积的变大而改变
will not change just because his size changes.
举个例子 当我们在烤松软的松糕时
For instance, when we bake a fluffy sponge cake,
即使最终的可口美味
even though the resulting delicious treat
比一开始进入烤箱的
is much bigger in size than the cake batter
蛋糕糊大得多
that went into the oven,
但蛋糕糊的重量仍然等于
the weight of the cake batter should still equal
蛋糕的重量
the weight of the cake
加上蒸发的水分重量
plus the moisture that has evaporated.
在化学反应式中
In a chemical equation,
分子重新排列组成新的化合物
molecules rearrange to make new compounds,
但是所有的化合物都应算在内
but all the components should still be accounted for.
当超人从
When our hero expands
6英尺高
from 6 feet tall
增长到18英尺高
to 18 feet tall,
他的高度增加了三陪
his height triples.
伽利略的“立方体法”表明
Galileo’s Square Cube Law says
他的重量度会是27——
his weight will be 27
3乘3乘3等于27——
– 3 times 3 times 3 equals 27 –
是他原先重量的27倍
times his regular weight
因为膨胀是三维方向的
since he has to expand in all three dimensions.
因此当超人变成巨人时
So, when our superhero transforms into a giant,
就有两个方面的可能性
we are dealing with two possibilities.
一是高18英尺
Our hero towering at 18 feet
但重量只有200磅
still only weighs 200 pounds,
即原来正常体型的体重
the original weight in this human form.
第二种 重5400磅
Now, option two, our hero weighs 5,400 pounds
——200磅乘以27等于5400磅——
– 200 pounds times 27 equals 5,400 pounds –
高18英尺
when he is 18 feet tall,
也就意味着当身高是6英尺时
which means he also weighs 5,400 pounds
体重也是5400磅
when he is 6 feet tall.
没有人可以和他一起搭同一班电梯
Nobody can get in the same elevator with him
因为电梯警报器一定会响
without the alarm going off.
现在看来第二种情况似乎
Now, option two seems a little more
在科学意义上更能说得过去
scientifically plausible,
但是又带来另一个问题
but it begs the question,
他是怎么在公园里行走
how does he ever walk through the park
而不至于陷进地面的?
without sinking into the ground
因为他对于地面产生的压力是由
since the pressure he is exerting on the soil
他的重量
is calculated by his mass
除以他脚底接触地面的面积得出的
divided by the area of the bottom of his feet?
当他跑动时
And what kind of super socks and super shoes
脚底带动5400磅体重的摩擦力
is he putting on his feet to withstand all the friction
又是怎样的超级袜子和超级鞋子
that results from dragging his 5,400 pound body
所能承受的?
against the road when he runs?
他甚至跑动都是一个问题
And can he even run?
我也不会问怎么能找到可以承受
And I won’t even ask how he finds pants
那个东西膨胀的内裤
flexible enough to withstand the expansion.
接下来 我们来看看
Now, let’s explore the density
上面提到的两种情况各自的密度
of the two options mentioned above.
密度的定义是质量除以体积
Density is defined as mass divided by volume.
人体由骨头和肉组成
The human body is made out of bones and flesh,
密度相对稳定
which has a relatively set density.
在第一种情况中 如果超人一直重200磅
In option one, if the hero weighs 200 pounds all the time,
那在未长大前他的骨头和肉是正常的
then he would be bones and flesh at normal size.
而当他长大后
When he expands to a bigger size
因为重量仍为200磅
while still weighing 200 pounds,
实际上他把自己变成了一个
he essentially turns himself
巨大的毛茸茸的泰迪熊
into a giant, fluffy teddy bear.
第二种情况 即体重
In option two, if the hero weighs
始终为5400磅
5,400 pounds all the time,
那么他在18英尺高的时候是骨头和肉
then he would be bones and flesh at 18 feet
而只由两条腿支撑起5400磅的重量
with 5,400 pounds of weight supported by two legs.
这重量会全加在腿骨上
The weight would be exerted on the leg bones
随着他的移动而改变重心
at different angles as he moves.
骨头尽管坚硬 却不具有可塑性
Bones, while hard, are not malleable,
即不能弯曲
meaning they do not bend,
所以很容易骨折
so they break easily.
骨腱也有拉伤风险
The tendons would also be at risk of tearing.
高的建筑物之所以能直立
Tall buildings stay standing
是因为它们有钢筋结构支撑
because they have steel frames
不会在丛林里跑动或跳跃
and do not run and jump around in the jungle.
而超人们
Our hero, on the other hand,
一旦着陆角度不对
when landing at a bad angle,
就会摔倒
and he’s down.
假设他的身体机能和哺乳动物一样
Assuming his bodily function is the same as any mammal’s,
那么他的心脏需要泵大量的血液
his heart would need to pump a large amount of blood
才能传遍全身以提供足够的氧气
throughout his body to provide enough oxygen
以供带动5400磅的身体
for him to move 5,400 pounds of body weight around.
泵血需要巨大的能量
This would take tremendous energy,
这些能量需要每天消耗
which he would need to provide
27乘以3000卡路里的食物才能提供
by consuming 27 times 3,000 calories of food every day.
也就是约150个巨无霸
Now, that is roughly 150 Big Macs.
27乘以3000等于81000
27 times 3,000 calculated equals
除以550等于
81,000 calculated slash 550 calories
147
equals 147.
这样一来 他就没有时间惩恶扬善
He wouldn’t have time to fight crime
因为所有时间都用来吃东西了
because he would be eating all the time
并且还要朝九晚五地工作
and working a 9-to-5 job
以赚钱买吃的
in order to afford all the food he eats.
但那些可以把身体变成石头或沙子的英雄们呢?
And what about superheroes who can turn their bodies into rocks or sand?
首先 地球上的所有物质都是由元素组成的
Well, everything on Earth is made out of elements.
决定各个不同元素的
And what defines each element
是因为它们原子核中的质子数不同
is the number of protons in the nucleus.
元素周期表就是按这种规律排列的
That is how our periodic table is organized.
氢有一个质子
Hydrogen has one proton,
氦有两个质子
helium, two protons,
锂有三个
lithium, three protons,
依次类推
and so on.
最常见沙子的组成元素
The primary component of the most common form
是二氧化硅
of sand is silicon dioxide.
此外 人体由
Meanwhile, the human body consists of
65%的氧元素
65% oxygen,
18%的碳元素
18% carbon,
10%的氢元素
10% hydrogen,
和7%的多种其他元素组成
and 7% of various other elements
包括0.002%的硅元素
including 0.002% of silicon.
在化学反应中
In a chemical reaction,
元素重新组合成新的化合物
the elements recombine to make new compounds.
因此 超人是从哪里得到
So, where is he getting all this silicon
变成沙子的这些硅元素的呢?
necessary to make the sand?
当然 我们可以通过
Sure, we can alter elements
核裂变和核聚变获得新元素
by nuclear fusion or nuclear fission.
但是核聚变需要很多的能量
However, nuclear fusion requires so much heat,
唯一自然状态的核聚变就是在恒星形成时期
the only natural occurrence of this process is in stars.
为了短期内利用核聚变
In order to utilize fusion in a short amount of time,
发生反应的周围温度
the temperature of the area
需要比太阳温度还高
needs to be hotter than the Sun.
任何无辜的旁观者都会被烧成焦炭
Every innocent bystander will be burned to a crisp.
快速的核裂变也好不到哪去
Rapid nuclear fission is not any better
因为核裂变通常产生大量的放射性粒子
since it often results in many radioactive particles.
我们的超人将会变成
Our hero would become
一个边走边说的核电站
a walking, talking nuclear power plant,
最终会伤害到每个他想要救助的人
ultimately harming every person he tries to save.
还有你真的愿意像太阳那么多的热量
And do you really want the heat of the Sun
或是一个放射性核电站在你的体内吗?
or a radioactive nuclear plant inside of your body?
好啦 哪一集的超能物理课
Now, which superpower physics lesson
是你下一步想探索的呢?
will you explore next?
改变体型和组成
Shifting body size and content,
超级速度
super speed,
飞行能力
flight,
超级力量
super strength,
永生
immortality,
还是
and
隐形能力?
invisibility.

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如果我们真的变成了超人,可随意变大变小,可能吗?科学家又怎么看?

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视频来源

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=fpV7DKwcqbk

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