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我用气凝胶防水

I Waterproofed Myself With Aerogel!

I feel confident.
我觉得能行
You’re confident that I am NOT gonna be damaged?
你确定我不会受伤?
Not permanently.
至少不是永久性损伤
Okay
行吧
Let me back up for a moment. I want to talk about the properties of aerogel
让我先回顾一下 来聊聊气凝胶的特性
the world’s lightest solid.
这可是世界上最轻的固体
What I’m gonna do is I’m gonna lean in so it’s
我现在要靠过去
coming in through this mic and then can you do that again? yeah
这样麦克风就能录到 你把刚刚那个再做一遍
This is what it sounds like.
听 这就是气凝胶的声音
That is weird
太奇怪了
It has a metallic ring first recognized
这玩意儿发出了金属般的声响
by aerogel’s inventor Samuel Kistler all the way back in 1931.
早在1931年 缪尔·吉斯特勒就发明了气凝胶这种物质
Now aerogel is an excellent thermal insulator
气凝胶是一种极好的隔热材料
but it’s not the easiest material to work with.
但它很难处理
– Can I try it? – Sure.

– 我能玩玩嘛? – 当然

Oh I didn’t I don’t quite have the touch Oh I can’t I make it ring.
我没什么手感 哎呀 我不行 没法儿让它响起来
-Oh no. -Look, it didn’t take a whole lot to break it right.
-噢不 -你看 不需要多大劲儿就能把它搞碎
It breaks pretty easily. So is there a way to take the extraordinary thermal insulation of
气凝胶易碎 那么 有没有办法
aerogel but make it more usable?
既能利用气凝胶超强的隔热性能 同时使其更实用呢?
What I put together here is just a combination of aerogel particles, silica aerogel particles, and a non-flammable binder and
我把(二氧化硅)气凝胶颗粒和不可燃粘结剂混合在一起
you should be able to put it on your your skin and hit yourself with the torch.
你现在要把它涂在皮肤上 然后用喷灯往上喷火
– Should. – Right.
– Give it a shot.
– 来吧来吧 – 好吧

– Okay.
– So you just take a little bit and
– 试试看 – 你只要拿一点

squeeze it around your finger just around yeah just squeeze it around here。
挤在你的手指上 对就挤在这里
– One finger or two fingers? – Whatever you want.
– 一根手指还是两根? – 看你 都行
– How’s that am I am I doing it right?
– Oh yeah.
– 这行吗 我做得对吗
– 嗯嗯可以的
That’s, that’s, yeah, that’ll be good. Just wanna make sure the fire when it goes
只要保证一会儿在手指上点火的时候
around your finger doesn’t hit the bare skin.
不要烧到裸露的皮肤就行
Seems like it’s pretty thin around this finger tip here like, how thick should it be?
这个指尖周围的好像有点薄啊 应该涂多厚呢?
You’re making menervous holding a blowtorch.
你举着个喷灯搞得我好紧张
– Can I do the blowtorching? – Oh you can do the blowtorching, absolutely.
– 可以让我来喷吗? – 当然可以
Because I mean, if this is if this goes wrong.
就是说如果出了什么问题
So how hot is a blowtorch flame?
这个喷灯的火焰有多少度啊
Well it’s really hard to tell, but from our experience it’s usually you know at least 1500 degrees C.
很难说 根据经验通常至少有1500摄氏度
– and can get as hot as 2000. – So yeah this is very hot. Alright. Let’s
– 最高可达2000度的高温 – 好的 所以是很烫的意思
– try it this is so wrong. -That little jittery pot there.
– 试试看吧 这不太对劲 – 瞧这抖动的小罐子
You know it looks like I’m toasting a marshmallow whoa why is it flaming like that and
这看起来像在烤棉花糖 哇 它燃烧起来了 为什么
– what is burning? – Binder right now, correct.
– Should be able to just hold it right on there.
– 是什么燃烧起来了 – 是粘合剂 对的
– 应该把火焰保持在那儿没问题的
It doesn’t feel hot at all. My finger does not feel hot at all.
一点都不烫诶 我的手指一点都没感觉到烫
That is insane.
难以置信
I cannot believe how a little warmth I feel passing through that.
透过这层东西传导我手上居然只能感受到一点点温度
The FLIR 1020 thermal camera has different temperature ranges and here the aerogel is clearly hotter than the 160 degrees Celsius upper limit.
FLIR1020热感相机有不同的温度量程 这里气凝胶温度明显高于160摄氏度的上限
I mean it’s glowing orange hot, so it’s clearly incredibly hot.
它都炽热得发橙光了 显然热得离谱
I mean if you can see the blackbody radiation, you know that it’s very hot.
我解释一下 如果黑体辐射达到可见范围 说明它的温度真的很高了
So we went to the highest temperature range. So this goes up to 2,000 Celsius. 881 907 907 907.
我们调到最高的温度量程 现在最高可以到2000摄氏度 881度 907度 907度
907 degrees Celsius. That is absurd pretty good right in front of my finger
907摄氏度了!就在我手指前 不可思议
What! So this was was about almost a thousand Celsius,
天啊!所以这里刚刚有差不多一千摄氏度
– but behind this thin layer of aerogel my fingers are just just warm. – Yeah, 31 degrees.

– 但在这薄薄一层气凝胶后面 我的手指只感到暖暖的 – 对的 你的手指只有31摄氏度
– Wow. – Can you believe it?
– I mean, it is clear this stuff insulates.
– 哇哦 – 你能相信吗
– 显然 这东西能隔热
This video is about taking aerogels extraordinary properties and improving on them.
本期视频带给大家的是气凝胶的超强性能和其改进方法
For example, I’m about to step into this pool without getting wet.
为给大家做个示例 我现在要滴水不沾地踏入这个泳池
I think there’s a layer of air there right next to my skin.
我觉得好像有一层空气罩在我的皮肤上
That thin layer of air is what makes my skin looks silvery.
这一薄层空气让我的皮肤看起来银亮亮的
Light from certain angles reflects off the water-air interface in what’s called total internal reflection.
光线从特定角度入射到水-空气界面 发生所谓的全内反射
That is very strange. This is a really cool effect. I mean just besides the fact that I’m basically waterproof.
感觉好奇怪啊 我现在基本上是货真价实的防水 酷吧 还有这个效果也很炫
I feel like this extra air on me is making me more buoyant than usual.
我觉得附在身上的空气让我更容易浮起来了
Let me try coming out by the water and see if I’m still dry.
我试试从水里出来 看看身上是不是还干着
That is terrific. I don’t I don’t really feel wet at all.
太绝了 我一点都没湿
That was weird, really weird. So how did I make myself waterproof?
好奇怪啊 真的很奇怪 我是如何让自己防水的呢?
I did it with aerogel particles, by taking a bucket of them and coating myself
我用一桶细尘状的气凝胶颗粒涂满全身 从而实现了这一点
with the tiny dust. But this is a kind of strange way to become waterproof,
但这个防水原理其实有些违背常识
cuz normal silica aerogel is hydrophilic. There we go. Now this is a hydrophilic aerogel.
普通二氧化硅气凝胶是亲水的 如你所见 这是一种亲水的气凝胶
So all those -OH groups inside the aerogel are absorbing the liquid and causing the aerogel structure to collapse.
现在气凝胶内的-OH(羟基)基团都在吸收液体 导致气凝胶的分子结构崩解
Aerogel is really good at absorbing water for two reasons. First it contains a lot of surface area.
气凝胶吸水性很好 原因有二 第一 其表面积很大
Due to its nano scales sponge-like structure, an ice cube sized piece of aerogel
多亏其纳米级的海绵状结构 一个冰块大小的气凝胶
contains half a football field of surface area. That makes it good at absorbing lots of
其表面积相当于半个足球场 使得它能很好地吸收
molecules something scientists have sought to exploit.
大量分子 这是科学家们希望加以利用的
My favorite application which I still think today is a good idea is what’s the idea is
关于气凝胶的用途 其中之一至今我仍直呼妙哉
a physical insecticide. So most insecticides work by being neurotoxins
那就是将气凝胶作为物理杀虫剂 绝大多数杀虫剂都是通过神经毒素起作用的
They’re called cholinesterase inhibitors. It’s the same mechanism as nerve gas and
这些毒素被称为胆碱酯酶抑制剂 和神经毒气的作用机制一样
we spray this on crops and things, but a physical insecticide works by basically
我们把神经毒素喷在装甲和物件上杀虫
getting stuck to the outer skin of the insect and and basically sucking all the moisture
但物理杀虫剂的作用机制是附着在昆虫的外皮 吸走所有的水分
the or the oils out of them to the point where they just sort of dry out to death.
或带走油脂 直到它们被抽干而亡
– It’s kind of like putting salt on a slug or something like that. – Yeah. That’s a very good analogy exactly.
– 这就有点像在鼻涕虫上撒盐 – 是的 这个比喻很贴切
The other reason it’s good at absorbing water specifically is because it’s structure is covered with -OH groups
气凝胶强吸水性的第二个原因 是其分子结构含有大量-OH基团
which attract water molecules and that makes it ideal for use in museums.
使其吸引水分子 这种特性特别适合应用于博物馆
In the past, I’ve been working with a company in Italy called Gpium which makes Museum cases.
我之前一直在一家生产博物馆用具的意大利公司Gopium工作
I mean they made the case for Mona Lisa. They are interested in putting aerogels in
装《蒙娜丽莎》的箱子就是他们产的 他们非常有兴趣把气凝胶放进
the cases because it’s a passive moisture regulator essentially.
箱子里 因为它实际上是个被动式湿度调节器
Once you have it inside if the moisture increases the aerogel resolves a lot of it.
一旦你把它放进去 当箱内湿度升高 气凝胶就会溶解大部分水分
If it decreases it releases some of it. Aerogel’s ability to absorb is
湿度下降 它会释放一部分水分 气凝胶的吸水性
even being used right now to help detect Mars quakes. These were the ones that
甚至可以应用于探测火星地震 这些是为了
were made for the NASA InSight mission. This aerogel looks like chalk
NASA的“洞察号”任务特制的 这个气凝胶看起来就像粉笔
because so-called zeolite particles are dispersed throughout it. They can absorb moisture even at very low pressures
因为一种我们叫“沸石颗粒”的东西分散在其中 它们能在极低的气压下吸收水分
There’s a seismometer that contains three small seismometers and requires, since they’re so small,
(这个任务)有一个地震仪 包含着三个小地震仪 因为它们实在很小
they require exceptional vacuum inside otherwise the motion gets stamped,
内部需要接近绝对真空 否则它们的运动就会受影响
so that’s what we developed this for, the zeolites were helping absorb the moisture
这就是为什么我们开发了前面那个东西 沸石显著地增加了水分的吸收
predominantly. That was coming off of the hypotheses and gave me some guessing different things.
这一开始只是一些假设 而我从中得到了一些不同的猜想
So that is it’s sort of maintaining the vacuum by keeping
所以 其实就像 为了保持真空 你得
– pulling things… – It’s actually a vacuum ball if you think of it that way,
– 你得抽…… – 对的 实际上它就是个真空球 如果你这样理解的话
and what’s interesting about it is it does not require any power, any consumptions,
有意思的是 它不需要任何动力 也不需要消耗能量
very light. So essentially this is what enabled the InSight mission to work.
还非常轻巧 可以说它就是“洞察号”任务完成的关键
Aerogel can absorb up to 25 times its weight in water, but for some applications this is less than ideal.
气凝胶能够吸收达自身重量25倍的水分 但对某些应用领域这还远远不够
– So once we’ve done this is that piece of aerogel ruined now? – Pretty much, yeah.
– 所以我们把它烧了之后 这块气凝胶就毁了? – 差不多 对啊
That’s that’s entropy…irreversible damage there. To counteract this issue
这是熵……呃不可逆的破坏 要反转它的特性
we take a hydrophobe, it’s a reactive chemical that when it touches an -OH group,
我们会用到一种疏水性物质 它是一种活性化学物质 当接触到-OH基团时
spontaneously rearranges with that -OH group and creates this big non-polar group and that repels water,
自发地与-OH基团重排 形成一个大的非极性疏水基团
so by replacing just 30% of the -OH groups that line the inside of the aerogel
只要替换掉气凝胶分子排列中30%的-OH基团
with these hydrophobic groups you can make an aerogel that perfectly repels water.
换成这些疏水基团 你将得到一个疏水性极好的气凝胶
So here water bounces off. It’s totally impervious, it does not penetrate in
你看 现在水珠弹开了 完全不透水 水根本渗不进去
and it can sit on water for months and it will be just the same as if it was never wetted at all
它可以在水面浮上几个月 根本不会被弄湿
– You ready? – I guess
– Give it a shot, there it goes.
– 好了吗? – 嗯嗯
– 试试看 来咯
It feels funny cuz it like it hardly feels like the water is touching me,
挺搞笑的感觉 因为这个水就像完全没碰到我
– because in a way the water isn’t touching me – it’s not touching you
– 某种意义上说确实没碰到我 – 的确
That’s what’s amazing, at the molecular level it is being repelled.
这就是它神奇的地方呀 水分在分子层面上被你手上(的气凝胶)排斥了
Look how crazy that it’s like a weird laminar flow. this is so trippy.
看看这有多离谱 像什么诡异的层流 太魔幻了
So aerogel can be made impervious to water or more adsorbent.
气凝胶可以被制成不透水的 但也可以变成更强的吸附剂
It is naturally brittle but it can be worked into a sticky paste.
它天然易碎 但也可以被加工成粘稠的糊状物
And so far I’ve really only focused on silica aerogel but air gels can be made out of all sorts of different materials.
到现在我们只谈了二氧化硅气凝胶 而气凝胶可以来源于各种材料
-So all of these materials are nano structured -That’s right.
-所以这里的材料都是纳米级的 -对的
-And they have nano sized pores around 20 nanometers in size. -That’s right.
– 它们都有纳米级的孔隙 大约20nm – 对的
– And they are over 50% air – Correct.
– 并且它们由50%的空气组成 – 没错

– which is why they’re also light
– Lightweight, that’s true.
– 这就是为啥它们这么轻 – 轻量级的 确实
Some of them are made of polymers and there is a trade-off between thermal and mechanical properties.
其中一些是由聚合物制成的 在热性能和机械性能之间有一个平衡
A traditional silica aerogel is typically around 15 milliwatts per meter Kelvin thermal conductivity.
传统的硅气凝胶的导热系数通常约为15毫瓦/米开尔文
So that means about 3 times 2 to 3 times better insulating than styrofoam.
这意味着它的绝缘性能是聚苯乙烯泡沫塑料的3倍 2到3倍
These materials would be between one and a half to two times more insulating than styrofoam
这些材料的绝缘性将是聚苯乙烯泡沫塑料的1.5至2倍
somewhere around 20 to 26 milliwatts per meter Kelvin.
约为每米20至26毫瓦开尔文
This is a polyimide a aerogel. This chemistry came from NASA so it’s a great insulating material
这是一种聚酰亚胺气凝胶 这种化学物质来自美国宇航局 所以它是一种很好的绝缘材料
but it’s not flammable. Knock on it, it feels like wood internally we call it Martian tape
但它不易燃 敲一敲 内部像是木头 我们叫它火星胶带
Another way to make aerogel more workable is to incorporate it into composite materials like blankets
另一种使气凝胶更具实用性的方法 是将其加入复合材料中 比如毯子
– Something that’s in between silicon and silica – That feels nice it feels very nice – Doesn’t it?

– 这是某种介于硅和二氧化硅之间的物质 – 哇手感好好
– 可不是吗

– It feels like almost like a stuffed animal. – Yeah exactly.
– 摸起来像毛绒玩具 – 确实
So this is a new type of aerogel blanket that in the future we may find in
所以这就是一种新型的气凝胶毯 将来我们可以用来做
something like an astronaut suit or maybe even apparel. This material is actually it’s fiberglass.
宇航服或者甚至是服装之类的 这种材质其实是玻璃纤维
– It does feel like fiberglass. – It’s fiberglass that’s been infused with aerogel and so that fiberglass aerogel composite
– 感觉确实像玻璃纤维 – 这是注入了气凝胶的玻璃纤维 所以是玻璃纤维气凝胶复合材料
so because aerogels are traditionally very fragile by compositing it with the fiberglass allows you to make something
由于气凝胶本身非常脆弱 通过与玻璃纤维复合 你就可以得到
that can be flexed and cut and sewn and wrapped. It’s not the most cuddly, it it sheds dust when
一种可以被弯曲 剪裁 缝制和包裹的材料 这还不算手感最好的 你看敲敲它
you tap on it. What kind of dust is that going up there?
– That’s silica aerogel to amorphus silica
– 会落尘 – 这尘哪来的
– 这是硅气凝胶变成了氧化硅
and it’s it’s very safe. It’s not for example like quartz fiber or asbestos which are you know long aspect-ratio fibers
而且它非常安全 不像石英纤维或石棉 你知道这些长宽比高的纤维
that the body has no chemical means or physical means of breaking down.
机体无法通过物理或化学途径分解
This stuff is readily captured and and expelled by the body and it’s it’s not dangerous.
这种物质很容易被机体吸收和排除 它并不危害健康
And this is what they use to insulate subsea oil pipelines and refineries and all sorts of applications
这就是他们用来使海底输油管道 炼油厂隔热的材料 还有很多用途
– That thickness will insulate a pipeline? – Yeah so that thickness that that one this is one centimeter thick.
– 这种厚度就能使管道隔热了吗 – 是的 这个厚度 这个有1厘米厚
In one centimeter you get the same effective insulation value as three centimeters over an inch
这薄薄一厘米的隔热效果 相当于一英寸多三厘米的矿棉或玻璃纤维
of mineral wool or fiberglass by itself . So it’s a tremendously better insulator.
的隔热效果 所以它是好得多的绝缘体
This blanket is actually what I’m gonna put to the test in the final episode of
这条毯子就是我在《气凝胶三重奏》的最后一集
the aerogel trilogy so subscribe if you don’t want to miss it
要测试的东西 快订阅吧 别错过哟

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视频概述

气凝胶具有超强的性质,但却很难处理。本视频将介绍如何改进气凝胶,利用其独特的性质应用到令人意想不到的领域。从火星探测到给蒙娜丽莎防水,再到毯子,这一站在科技前沿的材料一定会令你大开眼界。

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视频来源

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=GcdB5bFwio4

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