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I HAD LEARNED...过去完成时|含发音和示例的英语语法课

I HAD LEARNED... The Past Perfect Tense | English Grammar Lesson with Pronunciation & Examples

Hey there I’m Emma from mmmEnglish!
大家好 欢迎收看《艾玛英语》 我是艾玛
Today we’re gonna focus on the language
今天我们将会着重讲解
that you need to tell stories in English.
如何用英语讲故事
Now, we all tell stories, right?
我们都会讲故事 对吧
About our day, about our childhood
关于生活 关于童年
or maybe just to laugh at something that happened earlier.
或者只是为了取笑之前发生的事情
So a really useful tense to help you
所以在英语中
accurately tell stories in English
过去完成时是一个非常有用的时态
is the past perfect.
可以帮助你准确地讲故事
Now I know that grammar isn’t usually heaps of fun
我知道语法通常不是很有趣
but we’re going to include some pronunciation practice
我们接下来会有一些发音练习
and I will make it as fun as I can.
我会尽可能地让它变得有趣
As always I’ve got a mini quiz at the end
和往常一样 我会在最后留一个小测验
to help you practise so make sure you stick around.
来帮助你练习 所以一定要坚持到最后
So we use the past perfect to talk about the past
我们用过去完成时来谈论过去的事情
but not just any situation in the past,
但不是过去的任何情况都会用到
we use the past perfect
当我们谈论过去发生的两件事
when we’re talking about two events that happened in the past
且其中一件事发生在另一件事之前
and when one event happened before the other event.
这时候我们会使用过去完成时
So it helps you to order the actions in your story.
它可以帮助你安排故事中动作的顺序
Think about the past perfect as helping us to create a timeline.
过去完成时可以帮我们创建时间线
I had just stepped outsid e when it started to rain.
我刚到外面 天就开始下雨了
So there are two actions here, right?
这里有两个动作 对吧
I stepped outside, it started to rain.
我走出去 天开始下雨
Now if I use just the past simple for both of theses events
如果我两个事件都用一般过去时
well then we don’t know which one happened first, right?
那我们就不知道哪一件事先发生 对吧
All we know is that both events happened in the past.
我们只知道这两件事都发生在过去
So by using the past perfect in one of those actions,
所以对其中一个动作中使用过去完成时
I’m letting you know which action happened before the other.
你就会知道两个动作的先后顺序
I had just stepped outside when it started to rain.
我刚到外面 天就开始下雨了
So which one came first?
那么哪个动作先发生呢?
I stepped outside and then after it started to rain.
我走到外面 然后天就开始下雨了
Let’s look at a few more examples.
让我们再多看几个例子
She had just finished her exam when the timer went off.
她刚完成试卷 计时器就响了
So which action happened first?
那么哪个动作先发生呢?
Did the timer go up first?
是计时器先响的吗?
No she finished her exam first but only by a little, just.
不是 她先完成了试卷 但是仅早了一点点
And we know this because of the past perfect.
我们通过分析过去完成时得到这些信息
I couldn’t go out for dinner because I had left my wallet at home.
我不能出去吃晚饭 因为我把钱包忘在家里了
So try and imagine the story here, you know, I was
试着想象一下这个故事
working and one of my colleagues came up to ask me
当时我正在工作 一位同事走过来
to join them for dinner after work
邀请我下班后和他们一起吃晚饭
but I realised that I didn’t have my wallet that day.
但我意识到那一天 我没带钱包
I left it at home.
我把它落在家了
So I couldn’t go out.
所以我不能出去吃饭
He had mentioned feeling sick,
他说过他感觉不舒服
but then they were surprised when he suddenly fainted.
但当他突然昏倒时 人们还是吓了一跳
Now that is a great sentence. It’s very dramatic.
这是一个很好的句子 很有戏剧性
He did say that he felt sick
他确实说过他觉得不舒服
and he mentioned it before he fainted but
而且是晕倒前说的
clearly, no one was paying attention because it was
但显然没有人注意到
a shock that he fainted.
因为他的晕倒让他们很震惊
So the past perfect helps our story to unfold over time,
所以过去完成时让故事随着时间的推移而展开
to create suspense and to create drama.
创造悬念 创造剧情
So let’s talk about how we make a past perfect sentence
下面我们来谈谈 如何用过去完成时造句
and it’s pretty simple actually
这其实很简单
as far as English verb tenses go
就英语动词时态而言
especially after all of the conditionals videos that I’ve been teaching lately.
尤其是在我最近教的条件句视频之后
You’ve probably already started noticing a pattern.
你可能已经开始注意到了一种模式
We create the past perfect by using the verb ‘had’
我们用动词had构成过去完成时
the auxiliary verb ‘had’,followed by our main verb in past participle form.
助动词had后接主要动词的分词形式
So let’s go back and look at those same examples again
我们回过头来 再看看之前一样的例子
She had just finished her exam when the timer went off.
她刚完成试卷 计时器就响了
I couldn’t go out for dinner
我不能出去吃晚饭
because I had left my wallet at home.
因为我把钱包落在家了
He had mentioned feeling sick
他说过他觉得不舒服
but then they were surprised when he suddenly fainted.
但当他突然昏倒时 人们还是吓了一跳
So I’m going to interrupt our lesson here
在深入讨论之前
before we go too much further because I want to talk
我要打断一下我们的课程
about pronunciation.
因为我想谈一谈发音
Learning to correctly use contractions is going to help
学习正确使用缩略形式将帮助你
you to sound much more natural
在说话时听起来更自然
and much more relaxed as you speak.
而且更加放松
‘had’ is our auxiliary verb here,right? and our main verb
had在这里是助动词 对吧?
comes after in the past participle form.
主要动词的过去分词的形式紧跟其后
So auxiliary verbs are grammatical words.
所以助动词是语法词
They’re usually unstressed and this impacts the way that they are spoken.
它们通常不需要重读 所以影响了它们的发音
Auxiliary verbs are usually connected to the subject
在英语口语中 助动词通常与主语相连
in spoken English so it’s really natural to hear I’d instead of I had
所以很自然地听到I’d而不是I had
you’d
you‘d
she’d
she’d
he’d
he’d
we’d
we’d
they’d
they’d
and the trickiest one of all,
其中最难的一个
it’d,
it’d
It’d been raining all day.
雨下了一整天
Now in negative sentences,
在否定句中
the auxiliary verb usually contracts with ‘not’ so you’ll hear
助动词通常与not连用 所以你会听到
I hadn’t instead of I had not.
I hadn’t 而不是I had not
Or you hadn’t instead of you had not.
或是you hadn’t 而不是you had not
Now remember, we don’t conjugate the auxiliary verb
记住 当我们使用过去完成时
when were using the past perfect right
助动词不用变形
so we use ‘had’ with ‘she’.
所以我she能与had连用
she hadn’t.
she hadn’t
it hadn’t.
it hadn’t
they hadn’t.
they hadn’t
But you will occasionally hear the contraction a little differently.
但是你偶尔会听到一些不同的缩略形式
She’d not been there.
She’d not been there.
Or you’d not tasted it.
或者you’d not tasted it.
And this is absolutely no problem
当然这没有问题
but it’s much less common. It’s used less frequently.
只是这些不太常见 使用的频率比较低
My students often feel really frustrated about these
我的学生经常对这些缩略形式感到苦恼
contractions because they’re exactly the same
因为它们与我们在
contractions as we use for ‘I would’ l’d
I would I’d中使用的缩略词完全相同
It’s annoying I know
我知道这很令人讨厌
but the clue is in the main verb that follows because with ‘would’,
但是线索是 would后面要用动词原形
it’s always followed by the infinitive verb right?
would后面总是跟动词原形 对吧
‘had’ is always followed by the past participle.
had后面总是跟着过去分词
So if you hear ‘I’d go to the beach every day after school’
如果你听到 I’d go to the beach every day after school
we know that that’s ‘would’ because
我们知道d代替了would
the verb ‘go’ is an infinitive form.
因为go是动词原形
I’d been at the beach when the storm rolled in.
暴风雨来临时 我正在海滩上
We know that that’s the past perfect
因为后面的动词形式
because of the verb form that follows.
我们知道这是过去完成时
So as we move through this lesson,
所以在这节课程的推进过程中
tune into the way that I’m saying all the examples and the practice sentences.
仔细听我如何念出例句和练习句
Try to practise out loud with me
试着和我一起大声练习
and just get comfortable with it.
慢慢适应发音
Alright now let’s get back to how the past perfect tense is used
那么现在让我们再来看如何使用过去完成时
because it almost always involves
因为它几乎总是涉及到
more than one event or action.
一个以上的事件或动作
So we usually need to know what to do with the other event in our sentence, right?
所以我们通常需要知道如何处理句子中的其他事件 对吧?
So when we use the past perfect in a sentence to show
当我们在一个句子中使用过去完成时来
the order of things that happen in the past,
表示过去发生事情的顺序时
the first event happens in the past perfect tense.
首先发生的事件用过去完成时
The second event happens in the past simple tense.
后发生的事件用一般过去时
Now interestingly it doesn’t matter which order the events are in the sentence.
有趣的是 事件在句子中的顺序并不重要
It’s the tenses that tell us what happened first
时态会告诉我们哪件事先发生
so we could say the past perfect,past simple
所以我们可以说过去完成时 一般过去时
or the past simple and the past perfect.
或者一般过去时和过去完成时
It’s the same. In either of those examples,
它们是一样的 在这两个例子中
the past perfect event is the one that happened first in time.
用过去完成时的事件在时间上最先发生
I had just smelled smoke when the fire alarm went off.
我刚闻到烟味 火警警报就响了
Or when the fire alarm went off,
或者火警警报响起的时候
I had just smelled smoke.
我刚闻到烟味
So in both examples, I smelled the smoke first.
在这两个例子中 都是在警报响起之前
It happened just before the alarm went off.
我就已经闻到了烟味
I also want to make a special point about adverbs here
这里我还想对副词做一个特别说明
because we use adverbs like ‘just’ and ‘really’ ‘already’.
因为我们会用just really already这样的副词
They’re often used in the past perfect tense
它们通常用在过去完成时中
and they go between ‘had’ and our main verb,right?
并且位于had和主要动词之间 对吧?
So we have ‘had’,adverb, past participle.
所以我们用had 副词 过去分词
Had just finished.
这样就算完成了
Had really tried. Had already eaten.
在你尝试过 并且掌握了用法之后
All of this is exciting huh?
这一切都很有成就感对吧?
It helps us to add more to our story.
过去完成时帮助我们完善我们的故事
So we use ‘just’ with the past perfect when one event
所以当一件事紧接着另一件事发生时
happens immediately before the other
连用just和过去完成时
so you really want to emphasise that
从而你就能强调
not much time has passed between the first event and the second event.
第一 第二件事发生时相隔不久
He had just got in the shower
他刚洗完澡
when he heard a knock at the door.
就听到有人敲门
So it was only moments before.
就在那敲门一刻之前
We use ‘already’ with the past perfect when an event
当一件事发生的比预期的早或更早时
happens early or earlier than expected.
already和过去完成时连用
I ran to the supermarket as fast as I could
我以最快的速度跑向超市
but it had already closed when I got there.
但当我到那儿的时候它已经关门了
Do you want to know one of the most common
你想知道我的学生在使用这种时态时
mistakes that my students make with this tense?
最常犯的一个错误吗?
Can you see what’s wrong there?
你能看这句话的错误吗?
It’s the present perfect
它是现在完成时
and you can’t use ‘when’ with the past simple and the present perfect.
你不能将when与一般过去时和现在完成时连用
We have to use the past perfect
我们必须用过去完成时
‘had’ with the past participle
had与过去分词连用
even when the subject is plural, we still use ‘had’
即使主语是复数 我们仍然用had
okay so don’t conjugate the verb. That is a massive mistake
所以使用过去完成时 不要改变动词形式
when you’re talking about the past perfect.
这是个很大的错误
So we’ve gone through all the details about how
我们已经讲完了过去完成时的所有细节
to make the past perfect, what you need to remember,
你应该记住什么
what you need to do.
还有你需要怎么做
Let’s practise using it together.
让我们一起练习使用它
I’m really looking forward to hearing some stories from you guys.
我真的很想听听你们的故事
Quiz time!
测试时间!
To kick off our quiz, I’m gonna give you two events or actions up here.
开始测验时 我会给你提供两个事件或动作
Both of these events take place in the past.
这两件事都发生在过去
So I’ll tell you which event happened first and you’ll need
我会告诉你哪件事先发生
to write a sentence correctly using the past perfect.
你需要正确地使用过去完成时写一个句子
So the first event was we heard a strange noise
第一件事是 我们听到了奇怪的声音
and the second event was
第二件事是
the lights went out immediately after.
灯马上熄灭了
Now that part about immediately after is important
紧接其后这部分很重要
because you can use an adverb to help explain that.
因为你可以用副词来解释
So you might write something like
所以你可以这样写
We had just heard a strange noise
当灯熄灭时
when the lights went out.
我们刚刚听到了一个奇怪的声音
Now it’s your turn to try.
现在轮到你们尝试了
So I want you to write your answers in the comments down below this video
在视频下方的评论区写下你们的答案
so that I can come down and check them for you,
这样我就可以下来帮你们检查了
correct them if you need it.
如果你需要的话 我会帮你纠正
Ths first event.
第一件事
I decided to leave.
我决定离开
The second event.
第二件事
The boss called for a meeting.
老板要求开会
The second event
第二件事
was we bought plane tickets.
我们买了机票
The first event.
第一件事
The prices increased.
机票涨价了
Unexpectedly early.
出乎意料的早
Last one. First event.
最后一个例子 第一件事
She looked around for help.
她环顾四周寻求帮助
Second event.
第二件事
A salesperson appeared, immediately afterwards.
一名销售人员随即出现
Awesome work!
你们都做的都很棒
I have got one extra challenge for you if you
如果你真的想检验你的技能
really want to test your skills, see how well you can do.
我给你准备了一个额外的挑战 看看你做得怎么样
I want you to write a short story for me
我想让你写一个短篇故事
about a misadventure that you’ve had once in the past.
关于你过去经历中的一次不幸
So I want you to try and use three examples of the past perfect.
我希望 你能试着用三个过去完成时的例子
And just so you know a misadventure is an adventure or a story
正如你们所知 misadventure是一个冒险或一个故事
but something went a little wrong.
但是事情出了一点差错
Something went not quite right,
有些事情不太顺利
perhaps it’s quite a funny story where you were
也可以是一个很有趣的故事
running late, you missed your bus
比如你迟到了 错过了公交车
and you got rained on.
或者你被雨淋了
Or maybe it was a frustrating story about
也可能是一个令人沮丧的故事
losing your keys, getting locked out
比如丢了钥匙 被锁在门外
and then missing an important meeting.
然后错过了一个重要的会议
I’m really excited to read these stories guys
我特别期待能读一读你的故事
and I’m gonna do my best to give you feedback,
我也会尽最大的努力给你们反馈
especially if you get your stories written in the next couple of days,
特别是如果你们能够在接下来的几天里 写好你们的故事
as soon as this video is released on my channel.
彼时我也会在我的频道上发布本视频
Thank you for sticking with me through this lesson.
感谢大家坚持听我讲完这节课
I hope that it was useful and a little bit of fun.
我希望这对大家有所帮助 也能增添一些乐趣
Make sure you subscribe to my channel and
请大家订阅我的频道
share this lesson with anyone who you know needs to
并把这节课分享给任何
practise their grammar a little.
你认识的需要练习语法的人
As always you can join me right here for our next lesson
和往常一样 你可以点击此处 参加我的下节课程
See you in there!
下节课见!

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视频概述

课程讲解了过去完成时的使用条件,固定句式以及发音,让你轻松掌握用过去完成时讲故事, 一起来看看吧!

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翻译译者

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视频来源

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Jjj5-KnpdIQ

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