“I remember, when my brother was born, people would say,
‘Isn’t it great that Mrs. Bell has a boy now?’
As a small child, I found that difficult.
I knew I wanted to be an astronomer.
But at that stage, there weren’t any women role models that I knew of.
Even when I got engaged to be married,
many people would congratulate me on that
and say nothing about making a major astrophysical discovery
“The discovery of pulsars, for which U.K. —”
“A girl —”
“A girl —”
“— wrote one of astronomy’s most exciting discoveries.”
“Of course, back then, nobody knew what a pulsar was
当然 在那个时候 没人知道脉冲星是个什么东西
until I found the first two.
I was born in Northern Ireland, 1943.
My father was an architect for the observatory in Armagh.
I was in secondary school, enjoying it very much right from the beginning,
until the Wednesday of the first week
They sent the boys to the science laboratory
laboratory and the girls to the cookery room
because they were going to be homemakers.
I knew that wasn’t right.
I tried protesting to the domestic science teacher,
but she wasn’t hearing anything of it.
But when I told my parents that night,
they hit the roof.
As Quakers, we believe there is
something of God in everybody, literally everybody.
So everybody needed a scientific education.
The next time the science class
met, there were three girls and all the boys.
I was reading one of my father’s library books,
which was an astronomy book, ‘Frontiers of Astronomy,’
by Fred Hoyle, the famous astronomer.
I knew, before I left school, I wanted to be a radio astronomer.
在离开学校前 我知道 我想成为一名射电天文学家
I went to University of Glasgow in Scotland.
I ended up being the only female in a class of 50.
And it was the tradition that when a woman entered the lecture theater
the lecture theater, all the guys whistled, cat-called,
banged their desks.”
“I had to face this on my own.”
“It’s nasty, yes.
If I hadn’t been clear what I wanted to do,
I would probably have gone some other way.
I rather belatedly put in an application to Cambridge.
I didn’t think I was clever enough for this top university.
But rather to my surprise, I got in.
‘Oh, they’ve made a mistake admitting me.’
“They’re going to discover their mistake and throw me out”
That’s impostor syndrome.
I got around it by deciding I would work my very hardest,
so that when they threw me out, I wouldn’t have a guilty conscience.
Tony Hewish had this particular project
to pick out compact objects called quasars
the very hot topic.
So the first job was to build the radio telescope
that I was to use.
No, no, you’re thinking of an optical telescope that uses light.
This is a radio telescope
that uses to pick out very, very distant objects.
Some of the radio telescopes are dishes.
Ours was like an agricultural frame.
We had to carry a bundle of about 20 cables hat were 50 meters long.
Then you’d yell, ‘Lift!’ They’d all lift,
and ‘Right’ — this sort of caterpillar of people carrying cables.
It took about half a dozen of us two years to build.”
“The array rotated with the Earth, scanning continuously,
night and day, across the sky.
And it was to be operated full time by one person, a girl,
a graduate student who helped to build it, Jocelyn Bell.”
“My presence as a female student was an anomaly.
The only other females were the secretaries.
At this stage, there was nobody else on this project.
It was Tony Hewish and I. He’s the person who’s had the idea
and he’s the person who’s got the money to build the radio telescope
but it’s my Ph.D.
I’m running the telescope, and I’m analyzing the data.
You end up with a long chart with a sort of squiggly line on it.
Ooh, there’s a big source.
That’s routine chart analysis.
And five minutes was one inch, so one foot for a hour,24 foot a day.
五分钟绘制一英寸 所以一小时是一英尺 一天就是24英尺
And I had four chart recorders going almost 100 foot a day.
There was rather more of that chart paper than I had imagined .I must say yes.
One day I was looking for quasars
and there was a signal there that I couldn’t explain.
It wasn’t a quasar.
And it didn’t look like any kind of interference that I’ve seen before.
I shouldn’t be seeing something like that.
I wanted to understand what it was.
And I ended up taking this problem to Tony.
And he said that it was interference.
He had one idea,
that Jocelyn had wired up the radio telescope wrongly
and it was something to do with that.
I kept observing.
And this thing took up about a quarter inch on the charts.
You actually need an enlargement
to run the chart faster under the pen
so everything gets spread out.
So I would go out to the observatory,
turn the chart on to high speed
while it should have been there,
at the appropriate time switch the high-speed recording,
and in comes pulse, pulse, pulse.
然后就出现了跳动 跳动 跳动
What is this?
I telephoned Tony.
I told them it was a string of pulsesone and a third seconds apart.
His immediate reaction was, ‘Oh, well that settles it.It’s interference.’
他当即回答 “我已经告诉你了 那是干扰信号”
I knew it wasn’t interference.
Next day, Tony came out.
And he saw the pulses with his own eyes.
And it wasn’t interference.
That started a whole new research project, basically.
What is it?
How are we getting this curious thing?
Tony and I together, we had some ideas.
I was excited to be heavily involved in discovering.whatever this was.
I went to ask Tony something, and the door was shut
which was most unusual.
And I stumbled on a discussion between Tony and Martin Ryle
the head of the group
which in retrospect was a discussion
I think I should have been part of right from the beginning.
How do we publish this result?
It’s incredibly hard to get people to believe you’ve discovered something amazing
if you’ve only got one.
I knew that finding more would be the clincher.
I’m back in the lab, doing some routine chart analysis,
and suddenly see something that looks awful like that first pulsar had looked.
I was convinced we now had two.
Tony gave a colloquium in Cambridge.
And every astronomer in Cambridge came.
[CHUCKLING] It was —
Fred Hoyle, the eminent astronomer that influenced me when I was a schoolgirl
was in the audience. Very exciting.
Tony was doing the lecture, announcing the discovery of this new radio source.
Tony could have cited me more and didn’t,
but I was Miss Bell, the student.
Fred Hoyle was the first to speak.
“This cosmic anarchist is the most controversial of theorists.”
“This is the first I’ve heard of these things.
I think it’s a supernova remnant.”
Fred Hoyle hadn’t heard of these things 45 minutes previously.
But within that time, he has assimilated the information
and actually come up with the right explanation
the one that turns out to be correct.
Gradually it became clearer and clearer
that this was hugely important.
We wrote up a paper announcing the first one.
And when it was published, it produced an enormous amount of interest.”
“— are entirely new.”
The press would ask Tony about the astrophysical significance of this discovery.
“— how greater than a planet could really —”
“And then they turned to me for what they called the human interest.
How many boyfriends did I have at once?
“If there —”
Would I describe myself as brunette or blond?
“Nothing in nature could do this.”
What were my bust, waist and hip measurements?
How tall was I?
The photographers were the worst.
They wanted me to undo some buttons on my blouse.
“A girl, Jocelyn Bell —”
The popular press were certainly putting me in the little girl, sexually attractive role.
I barely rated as a scientist.
Tony just let it happen.
It was dreadful.
I was leaving because I was going off to get married.
My husband was working elsewhere.
So I had to move jobs, and I left Cambridge.
Nineteen seventy-four, I was working in X-ray astronomy.
And the satellite we were to use was launching that morning.
One of my colleagues came rushing into my office,
‘Have you heard the news?
Have you heard the news?’
I thought the satellite’s gone, but it wasn’t.
It was the announcement of the Nobel Prize.
“Prof. Anthony Hewish
the discovery of pulsars, for which you played a decisive role,
is a most outstanding example of how in recent years
our knowledge of the universe has been dramatically expanded.”
“They’ve given the prize jointly to Martin Ryle,
who was the head of the Cambridge Radio Astronomy Group
and to Tony for pulsars.
Fred Hoyle was quite furious for me.”
Nobel scientist denies he used work of girl researcher
“And here we can see Dr. Tony Hewish,
who will tell us more about it.”
“When you plan a trip of discovery and somebody
at the masthead says, ‘Land ho,’ that’s great.
船头上有人说 ‘陆地在那儿’ 那很好
But, I mean, who actually inspired it and conceived it
但我的意思是 谁启发了它 构思了它
and decided what to do, when and so on
I mean, there is a difference between skipper and crew.”
I think the fact that I was a graduate student and a woman
together demoted my standing, in terms of receiving a Nobel Prize.
It didn’t bother me.
I was actually pleased.
I was really pleased that
pulsars were considered important enough to rate a Nobel Prize.
The very name “pulsar” is an abbreviation of “pulsating radio star.”
It’s the remains of a big star that exploded near the end of its life.
And this tiny star is spinning.
And as it spins, it sweeps a radio wave round the sky.
And if it shines in your face, you see pulse, pulse, pulse
如果它照在你的脸上 你会看到搏动 搏动 搏动
But if it doesn’t shine in your face
you don’t see anything.
Now, whether if I’d stayed single,
I think things might have been very different.
I think I would have been offered a postdoctoral place in Cambridge.
I would probably continued have working in radio astronomy the whole of my career
and be a much more narrow-minded astronomer as a result.
But I’ve actually had huge fun in my career
Even if it has not been a string of prestigious jobs,
it’s been a string of very, very interesting jobs,
usually working in great places with great colleagues.
July in 2018, I had a phone call from Ed Witten,
who’s a very eminent Princeton physicist,
saying that I’d won this Breakthrough Prize
for the discovery of pulsars.
The reason I discovered pulsars was because I was a bit of an outsider who
felt maybe not entitled to be there and so on.
And I thought if I could give more minority people an opportunity to do Ph.D.s,
some exciting things might emerge.
Phone up the chief executive of the Institute of Physics
and say, “Hello, Paul. Could the Institute of Physics use a $3 million award
说 “你好 保罗 物理学会能否拿出300万美元
to provide research studentships for people from minorities?’’
And he didn’t hesitate.
He said yes.
Fred Hoyle influenced me and turned me on to astronomy.
It’s important to be a good role model.
I do think it’s important that there are role models for young women.
So, OK, I’ll be it.”
所以 好的 我会成为那样的榜样