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神奇!水动力悬浮! – 译学馆
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神奇!水动力悬浮!

Hydrodynamic Levitation!

看这个
Check this out
哈哈哈 是不是超棒 这就是流体力学悬浮
Hahaha, isn’t that awesome? That is hydrodynamic levitation
注意看
Check it out!
这个泡沫塑料球悬浮在水流上
This styrofoam ball is levitating on this stream of water
而且表现非常稳定装置非常稳定 你甚至可以用飞盘穿过它
And it’s doing so in a very stable way. The set up it’s so stable you can play Frisbee through it
这真的很奇怪 因为水偏向球的一边
Which is weird to me because the water is off to one side of the ball
那看起来好像说不通啊 即使你把水流挡了一下 球还悬浮在空中 你看
And that doesn’t seem to make any sense, cause you can block the water for a second and the ball will still levitate, have a look
是不是很酷
Isn’t that cool?
怎么会这么稳呢 这怎么可能是个稳定的结构呢
How can it be stable like this? How can this be a stable configuration?
这就是我们要解释的
That is what we’re gonna explain
这是我的朋友布雷克
This is my friend Blake
他是一个玩具发明家 这个流体力学悬浮就是他想出来并带给了我
He is a toy inventor, and he actually came up with this and he brought it to me
我就说 “太棒了 肯定有什么物理原理在里头”
And I was like “That is awesome, there’s some really cool physics going on here.”
利用水流来平衡 真难以置信竟然
Juggling with water. I can’t believe it will
可以这样成功的换掉球它们甚至会相撞并向下
just allow you to switch balls like that. They can even hit each other as they go down
但不会让另一只球离开水流 其作用原理是什么呢
It doesn’t take the other one off the stream. So how does this effect work?
很多人可能会想到电吹风乒乓球效应它是基于伯努利定理的
Well a lot of people might think of the hairdryer ping-pong ball effect. Which works basically based on Bernoulli’s principle
那正是我们在这里展示的
That’s actually what we’re showing here
我们把水柱降下来 所以水的流速就非常低
We’ve brought this stream down so it’s going at a very low velocity
这样就形成了层流 而且你可以看到 看着球
So it’s pretty much laminar flow, and what you can see, if you look at the ball, is it’s entirely
是不是已经完全被水附着啦 这样水流升起 顶起这个球
enclosed in water, so that water stream comes up, goes around the ball and
就像乒乓球(浮在吹风机)一样
just as with the ping-pong ball
如果它移动到水流的一侧 就会慢慢从水柱顶端降下 那么根据伯努利原理
If it moves to one side of the stream it slows down the flow of fluid, and according to Bernoulli’s principle
这就相应增大了 另一侧上升速度较快的水流的压力
This increases the pressure relative to the faster flowing fluid on the other side
因此水又会把球推向中间 这也就为球提供了足够了稳定性
So it pushes the ball back into the middle. That is what provides the stability for this ball.
不过我想看看 我们用更大的球会有什么不同
But I think what we’re seeing with the bigger balls is something different.
这是我找到的最大的聚乙烯泡沫球 我并不认为还能悬浮 好啦 我们来试试看
This is the largest styrofoam ball I could find, so I don’t expect it to work, but hey we’re gonna give it a shot
我应该再放高一点吗
Should I go higher?
噢 居然成功了
Oh! It’s happening!
难以置信 它在上面悬浮 我的天呐
That is incredible! Look at it dance on there man!
就好像这种不稳定性被克服了 真不可思议你看水以漩涡状散开 真棒
It’s like got this instability, but it corrects. It’s incredible! You should see the way the water is spiraling off there.That is awesome!
所以我一直在想 到底是什么原理使之成为可能
So I’ve been thinking a lot about the physics that makes this possible
我觉得是因为水流接触到泡沫球
What I think is happening is as the stream contacts the ball
它推着球向上 但水流也会将球往外推 使其偏离水流
It pushes it up, but it also pushes the ball out, away from the stream
所以我想 球仍然会待在空中 真的难以置信它处于一种稳定的结构中
so what I think is remarkable is that the ball actually will stay there. It is in a stable configuration and
从高速镜头来看 球之所以能保持在水上是因为球旋转时 把水抛向四周了
From looking at the high-speed footage what I really think is going on is this water is getting thrown over and down by the ball
由于球在水上施加一个力 水在球上施加一个力
and since the ball is putting a force over and down on the water that water is putting a force up and in on the ball
使球恰好稳定在水流上
which keeps it right in that stream
这是因为水流与泡沫球之间有一种黏附作用我们将镜头放慢一点
It’s because there’s a bit of adhesion between the water here and the styrofoam. Starts to go a little slower
可以看到水把球包裹住
That pulls all that water over the ball
这正是球开始旋转的前奏
And that’s the start of how you get the ball to spin
你是如何看待右侧的 提供更多升力并不断使球回到水流中去的喷射的呢
And how you get that sprayed down on the right-hand side which provides more lift and keeps forcing the ball back into the stream
一旦球在悬浮中就能保持稳定 因为球太靠近水流(中心)
once the ball is levitating it remains stable because if it drifts too far into the stream that decreases the flow of water around the ball
其周围的水流就会增大 并减少把球推进水流的动力
reducing the force pushing it into the stream
如果球移出的太远 增加了水流 也会增加将球推回的动力
And if it drifts too far out that increases the water flow over the ball increasing the force pushing it back into the stream
这就是(球的)平衡位置如此稳定的原因 任何轻微的扰动都会产生一种使球回到平衡状态的恢复力
That’s what makes the equilibrium position so stable. Any slight perturbation creates a restoring force that moves the ball back to equilibrium
我认为旋转很棒是因为它提供了角动量
The rotation I think is also nice because that gives it that angular momentum
提供了一点稳定性 这对球来说并不是那么重要
Providing a little bit of stability side by side, that’s not so important for these balls
但对光盘来说却很重要 如果你试图使光盘悬浮 就需要保持正确的方向
But it certainly is important for the disc. If you try to levitate a disc you need to keep it in the right orientation
噢 成功了 让光盘悬浮明显要比球更困难因为他们必须要保持方向垂直
Oh, yes! Getting the discs to levitate is significantly harder than the balls because they have to maintain their vertical orientation
才能实现悬浮 即使只有微风 也会使光盘悬浮变的困难
In order for this to work. Even a slight breeze makes this very difficult
嘿 快看 你能过来看看这是为什么吗
HEY! Check that out! Can you come in and get it?
我的天呐
Oh my goodness
毋庸置疑
This is a clear demonstration
其中不仅仅是伯努利定理 对吧 主要是因为光盘的旋转实际上承载了水向下喷射
that that is not just about the Bernoulli effect, right? It’s due to the rotation of the disc that actually carries the water
推着球回到水流中 真的很棒
over and sprays it down which pushes that back into the stream. That’s amazing
这不仅是一个极好的实验
Not only is this an awesome experiment
在夏天来玩也会很有意思 这是我朋友布雷克发明的
it’s also pretty fun to play around with in the summer, and it was invented by my friend Blake
欢迎来到我的节目《达芬奇新发明》
So come over my channel Innovinci
我会告诉你如何 在一个简单的家庭仓库操作它 你可以在自家后院制一个
and I’ll show you how, with a simple Home Depot run, you can build this in your own backyard
视频下面有我的链接 如果你也想制作这个 点击即可查看
I’ll put a link to that video right here. So if you want to make this, go check it out

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视频概述

你能想象球在喷水上悬浮?你能想到光碟在水上飞舞吗?这个实验让你在夏日嗨起来!

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视频来源

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=mNHp8iyyIjo

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